Friday, December 31, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: ANNUS

In honor of the New Year, I've decided to go out of order and make ANNUS the word for today. We get a lot of English words from this root, such as "annual," "anniversary," "annuity" along with somewhat less obvious words such as "perennial" and "millennium." There are also many Latin compounds using this word; one of my favorites is annosus, "full of years," which is to say "old, elderly."

There is also a Latin word with a similar spelling, anus, meaning a ring or circle, more commonly found in the diminutive form, anulus (the ring you wear on your finger is an anulus in Latin). Some Romans believed that there was a connection between the word anus and annus, since the year is also something like a circle or a ring, a course that goes around and around without end. Here is a passage from Varro to that effect: tempus a bruma ad brumam, dum sol redit, vocatur annus; quod, ut parvi circuli anuli, sic magni dicebantur circites ani, unde annus, "the time from the winter solstice to the winter solstice, when the sun comes back, is called a year, annus, because, like small circles were said to be rings, anuli, so large circuits were said to be years, ani, hence the word annus."

The word Varro invokes here to define the course of the year, bruma, happens to be one of my favorite Latin words, so I will also say something about that here. The word bruma is actually a contraction from the fuller form, brevissima, i.e. brevissima dies, the shortest day of the year, which takes place on the winter solstice. Hence the word bruma also can mean the winter itself. We probably first think of "cold" when we think of winter, because we are used to having artificial lighting available to us all the time - but for the Romans, the shortness of the daylight was also a key feature of winter, hence the use of the term bruma to refer to the wintertime.

So, wishing you all a happy new year, here are some Latin sayings and proverbs with the word annus:

Anno Domini, A.D.

Anno Urbis Conditae, A.U.C.

Annus producit, non ager.

Annus fructificat, non terra.

Annus producit fructum, non arvum.

Annus superior, semper melior.

Semper praestat prior annus.

Non omnibus annis omnia conveniunt.

Candidus et felix proximus annus erit.

Semel in anno licet insanire.

Saepe dat una dies quod non evenit in anno.

Saepe dat una dies quod totus denegat annus.

Accidit in puncto quod non speratur in anno.

Quod donare mora nequit annua, dat brevis hora.

Perditur in puncto quod non reparatur in anno.

Si vestem repares, longum durabit in annum.

Immortalia ne speres, monet annus.

Vita brevis est, licet supra mille annos exeat.

Eunt anni more fluentis aquae.

Anni tacito passu labuntur.

Eheu! fugaces labuntur anni!

Ite, leves menses, alisque fugacibus anni.

Hora fugit, fugiuntque dies, fugit annus et aetas.

Da spatium vitae, multos da, Iupiter, annos!

O mihi praeteritos referat si Iuppiter annos!

Crescunt anni, decrescunt vires.

Cura facit canos, quamvis homo non habet annos.

Si tibi do mannos, numeres ne dentibus annos.

Nihil annis velocius.

A teneris crimen condiscitur annis.

Senecta addit annos, non etiam virtutes.

Senectus non annis computanda, sed factis.

Vulpes annosa non capitur.

Annosae frustra cornici retia tendis.

Annoso prospectandum latrante molosso.

Est annosa canis vix assuefacta catenis.

Annoso leoni vel lepores insultant.

Annosa arbor non transplantatur.

Non annosa uno quercus deciditur ictu.

Parcito saepe cibis et sic annosior ibis.

Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: MOVEO

Today's word is the second-conjugation verb MOVEO (movere, movi, motum). This is a highly productive word root in Latin, and there are obviously many English cognates, too! You can think of lots of obvious words ("move," "motion," etc.) but there are also some less obvious items, too. The English word "moment," for example, is a contracted form of movimentum. Even less obvious: English "mutiny" comes from Middle French meute, via the late Latin noun, movita.

One very interesting feature to note about this today's verb is what it reveals about verbal voice. In English, we are used to the idea that the same verb form could be either transitive or intransitive, depending on context. You can say in English, "the stars move" (i.e., the stars move about the sky, no object) but you can also say "they move the furniture" (where the furniture is the direct object of the verb).

Latin is more precise in the use of the verb movere than English is. When the verb takes an object, you find the active voice, just as you would expect: movet castra, for example, "he moves the camp." When the verb is intransitive, however, you will see the passive form used instead in Latin: aqua movetur, "the water moves, is moving." So, if you do feel a need to translate from Latin into English, be careful with those passive forms; sometimes the passive form might be equivalent to an English intransitive verb, rather than to an English passive. You can only decide based on context what the best English equivalent for the Latin verb might be.

Here are some Latin sayings and phrases that use today's word:

Salivam hoc movet.

Asperitas odium movet.

Bos sibi ipsi pulverem movet.

Non movenda moves.

Bene qui stat, non moveatur.

Malum bene situm ne moveto.

Lapidem omnem movebo.

Casus hominum movent corda.

Praecepta docent, exempla movent.

Verba docent, exempla movent.

Verba monent, exempla movent.

Verba movent, exempla trahunt.

Lacrimis adamanta movebis.

Asinus aurem movens.

Quietum non move lutum.

Cum Minerva et manum move.

Ut moveas alios, tu moveare prius.

Capiunt vitium, ni moveantur aquae.

Sol stat, sed terra movetur.

Caelum stat, terra autem movetur.

Motus sine causa nullus est.

Animi motum vultus detegit.

Motus in fine velocior.

Assiduo labuntur tempora motu.

Mota semel multitudo modum non servat.

Res satis est nota: plus dolent vulnera mota.

Plus foetent stercora mota.

Monday, December 27, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: CIVITAS

Today's word is CIVITAS, an abstract noun from the root civ-, as in civis. So just as civis refers to a "citizen," the abstract noun civitas refers to "citizenship" or the "general state of being a citizen." By metaphorical extension, it comes to mean the "community of citizens," in the sense of a "nation" or "state." By metonymy this can also extend to the sense of a "city," although note that while the words civitas and urbs can both be translated as "city" in English, they have quite different origins in Latin.

It is the word civitas which gives rise to the word for city in the various Roman languages, such as Italian città and Spanish ciudad. It is the old French form of the word, cite, which gives us the modern English "city."

Here are some Latin proverbs and sayings that use today's word:

Unus vir non facit civitatem.

In magna civitate multa et varia ingenia sunt.

Magna civitas, magna solitudo.

Civitates quo maiores, eo deteriores.

Labore virtute civitas floret.

Civium industria floret civitas.

Custodi civitatem, Domine.

Salus civitatis in legibus est.

Ut corpora nostra sine mente, sic civitas sine lege.

Talis est civitas, quales sunt principum mores.

Qualis rector est civitatis, tales inhabitantes.

Quales sunt summi civitatis viri, talis est civitas.

Disciplina praesidium civitatis.

Unius peccata tota civitas luit.

Duarum civitatum civis esse nemo potest.

Civitas in seditione non potest esse beata.

Omnis civitas vel domus divisa contra se, non stabit.

Beata civitas, quae in pace bellum timet.

Haec tota in civitate fabula est.

In libera civitate oportet etiam linguas esse liberas.

In libera civitate lingua mensque esse liberae deberent.

Lingua, quo vadis? erectura civitatem et rursum eversura?

Terribilis est in civitate sua homo linguosus.

Vae civitati in qua iuvenes magistratum gerunt!

Agros et civitates sapientia et navem gubernat.

Non potest civitas abscondi supra montem posita.

Frater qui adiuvatur a fratre quasi civitas firma.

Melius in oppidulo esse primum quam in civitate secundum.

Tria sunt enim quae habemus: libertatem, familiam, civitatem.

Omnibus duas esse censeo patrias, unam naturae, alteram civitatis.

Non enim habemus hic manentem civitatem, sed futuram inquirimus.

Saturday, December 25, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: VERITAS

Today's word is the noun VERITAS, meaning "truth," an abstract noun from the adjectival verus (vera, verum), "true." There is an English word derived from the Latin: "verity," a rarely used synonym for "truth." It is actually more common to see the French form of that word in the expression "cinéma vérité."

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Sit pax et veritas in diebus meis.

Nihil dulcius veritatis luce.

Via, veritas, vita.

Temporis filia veritas.

Vivat veritas.

Optima est veritas.

Quid est veritas?

Veritas omnia vincit.

Veritas et virtus vincunt.

Veritas vincet.

Dux mihi veritas.

Super omnia vincit veritas.

Ubi veritas, Deus ibi est.

Nil veretur veritas.

Nihil possumus contra veritatem.

Nox furibus, lux veritati convenit.

Veritas est super omnia amanda et sequenda.

Antiquior omnibus veritas.

Veritatis una vis, una facies est.

Ex ore parvulorum veritas.

Thursday, December 23, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: AQUA

Today's word is the wonderful noun AQUA, water, which gives us so many English derivatives, like "aquariums" and "aquaducts" and "aquifers" and so on.

There are also some less obvious words, such as "ewer" which comes from Old French eviere, via the Latin aquarius, the adjectival form of aqua - and, of course, we know "Aquarius" in English as a sign of the zodiac. In a related derivation, English "sewer" comes from Old French sewiere, which is aquarius with the prefix ex-.

In Latin, there are some important phrases and idioms that use today's word, such as aqua et ignis, "water and fire," which serves as a shorthand for the necessities of life. Since the Romans used water-clocks, water could indirectly refer to time; aquam dare meant to give someone the time they needed to speak, while aquam perdere referred to wasting time.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

In aqua scribis.

In mari aquam quaeris.

Transivimus per ignem et aquam.

Nec pleno flumine cernit aquas.

Omnes aquae in mare revertentur.

Eunt anni more fluentis aquae.

Vivis piscibus aqua, mortuis vinum.

Tempora labuntur more fluentis aquae.

A cane muto et aqua silente caveto.

Vitium capiunt, ni moveantur aquae.

Aquam e pumice postulas.

Ranae aquam ministras.

Cribro aquam hauris.

Haurit aquam cribro qui discere vult sine libro.

Aquae furtivae dulciores sunt.

Ardea culpat aquas, quia nescit nare per illas.

Contra hominem fortem et potentem aquam currentem, noli contendere.

Aquae non currenti et homini tacenti credere noli.

Amicus magis necessarius quam ignis et aqua.

In pugna miles, nauta peribit aqua.

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: PARO

Today's word is the Latin verb PARO, which is a typical first conjugation verb: parō, parāre, parāvī, parātum. The basic meaning of the Latin word is "get ready, set in order," as you can see in the English derivative "prepare" (from the Latin compound praeparō).

The real challenge with this Latin word is distinguishing it from other verbs that have "par" in their root. There is a second-conjugation verb pāreō (pārēre, pāruī, pāritum) which means both "to appear, to be at hand" and also "to obey" (in the sense that a servant appears and is ready to do his master's bidding!). This is the Latin word which gives us the English verb "appear." Then, just to make things even more confusing, there is a third-conjugation verb pariō (parere, peperī, partum), which means "give birth" (as in the English use of the Latin phrase "post-partum," meaning "after birth").

Now, because these verbs are from different conjugations, the number of ambiguous forms is quite small - although the present subjunctive paret (from parō, parāre) can only be distinguished from the present indicative pāret (from pāreō, pārāre) by the macron. In context, of course, the meanings of these verbs are so dramatically different from one another that if you keep the context in mind, you will probably not get confused at all!

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Estote parati.

Fortunam suam quisque parat.

Fortunam suam sibi quisque ipse parat.

In omnia paratus.

Mors omnibus parata est.

Sibi parat malum, qui alteri parat.

Unus Deus, sed plures amici parandi.

Paratur pax bello.

Si vis pacem, para bellum.

Iuveni parandum, seni utendum.

Novos amicos dum paras, veteres cole.

Vina parant animos.

Horam dum petis, ultimam para.

Parvum servabis, donec maiora parabis.

Homines plerique ipsi sibi mala parant.

Bonum para nomen, et dormi secure.

Pax, pax! clamatur; sed pax per bella paratur.

Novos parans amicos, ne obliviscere veterum.

Paratae lacrimae insidias, non luctum indicant.

Antequam viceris ne triumphum pares.

Sunday, December 19, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: SIGNUM

The word for today is SIGNUM, the Latin word which gives us "sign" in English. The Latin etymology of the word is important to recognize: signum most probably comes from the verb sequor (this is not 100% guaranteed, but Calvert Watkins for one endorses this etymology). How do you get from sequor to signum? Just think of the "signs" carried as standards by the legions - you follow where the sign leads you. I'll let the semiotically-minded readers ponder that metaphor more deeply; it can lead in some profound directions!

Another English word that ultimately derives from Latin signum is the word "seal" - not the animal, but instead the seal or stamp that serves as a marker or identifier. Start with Latin signum, form the Latin diminutive sigillum, which becomes seel in Old French and finally English "seal."

The English word "tocsin" is also derived from Latin signum. The Old French toquassen came from Provencal "tocar senh" (tocar, "to touch" and senh, from signum, here meaning a bell or signal), which then yielded English "tocsin."

Here are some Latin sayings and proverbs that use today's word:

Per signum crucis.

Hoc est signum Dei.

In hoc signo spes mea.

In hoc signo vinces.

Hoc signo victor eris.

Quid vesper serus vehat, sol tibi signa dabit.

A signis caeli nolite metuere quae timent gentes.

Signa autem temporum non potestis scire.

Animo qui aegrotat, corpore hunc signum dare.

Morbum signa precurrunt.

Certis rebus certa signa praecurrunt.

Oblivio signum neglegentiae.

Oblivio beneficiorum signum ingratitudinis.

Magnae indolis signum est sperare semper.

Senex in domo, bonum signum in domo.

Signum scientis est posse docere.

Silentium est signum sapientiae, et loquacitas est signum stultitiae.

Friday, December 17, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: NATURA

Today's Latin word is the noun NATURA, which is very familiar, of course, from the English borrowing, "nature."

You might pause for a moment and see what other words in Latin nouns are formed in this same way, using the -ura suffix applied to a participial stem. Natura is from natus (from the verb nascor) just as creatura is from creatus (from the verb creo), statura is from status (from the verb sto), cultura is from cultus (from the verb colo), structura from structus (from the verb struo) pictura from pictus (from the verb pingo), scriptura from scriptus (from the verb scribo) etc. These all result in parallel English words, too: "nature," "creature," "stature," "culture," "structure," "picture," "scripture," etc.

Here are some sayings and proverbs that use today's word:

Natura morborum medicatrix.

Medicus curat, natura sanat.

Dux vivendi natura.

Naturae vis maxima.

Natura rerum omnium mater.

Omnes natura parit liberos.

Natura diverso gaudet.

Natura simplicibus gaudet.

Natura paucis contenta.

Omne vitium contra naturam pugnat.

Omne nimium est naturae inimicum.

Ars aemula naturae.

Ars imitatur naturam.

Natura abhorret a vacuo.

Ars est simia naturae.

Ars est ministra naturae.

Ars perficit naturam.

Ars vincit naturam.

Natura longe superat artem.

Natura docet homines omnes artes.

Usus fortior natura.

Consuetudo altera natura.

Natura non facit saltus.

Natura nihil temere facit.

Natura nihil agit frustra.

Deus et natura nil otiosum facit.

Naturam mutare difficile.

Natura mutari non potest.

Naturam fallere grave est.

Natura non nisi parendo vincitur.

Natura plus trahit septem bobus.

Natura maxime miranda in minimis.

Quod natura negat, labor praebet.

Frater est amicus quem donat natura.

Friday, December 10, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: CREDO

Today's Latin word is CREDO. If you look at the parts of this verb - credo (credere), credidi, creditum - you get a very good clue about the Latin etymology of the word. Does that reduplicated -didi in the perfect from seem familiar? It should remind you of the Latin verb "to give," do (dare), dedi, deditum. The word credo is actually a compound of Latin cor ("heart, mind") and dare, meaning to "give heart" to something - in other words, "to trust" or "to believe."

We even use the first-person form of the verb "credo," as an English word. There are also many English words that are derived from this Latin stem, such as "credit," "creed," "credible," "incredible," and so on. Less easy to recognize is the word "miscreant," which comes via the Old French mescreant, meaning to "badly believe," in the sense of being a heretic or an infidel. Later, the meaning came to refer to any kind of scoundrel or villain, not necessarily in a religious context.

As you would expect in a word that is a compound of dare, the verb credere takes a dative complement: verbis tuis credo, "I believe my words" or "I put my trust in your words." The verb can also introduce indirect speech with the accusative and infinitive: Credo Deum esse.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Quod video, id credo mihi.

Quod non legitur, non creditur.

Vide et crede.

Ne omnibus credas.

Non omni verbo credas.

Non omnibus crede.

Id quod volunt, credunt quoque.

Non opus est verbis; credite rebus.

Non est credendum omni verbo.

Tibi ut vincas est credendum.

Male creditis hosti.

Agere sequitur credere.

Ne aliis de se quisquam plus quam sibi credat.

Virtuti melius quam fortunae creditur.

Ore lego, corde credo.

Beati qui non viderunt, et crediderunt.

Contra spem in spem credidit.

Quod volumus, facile credimus.

Omnia quae dicunt homines tu credere noli.

Plus aliis de te, quam tu tibi, credere noli.

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: QUANTUS

Today's word is the adjective QUANTUS which is how you express quantity and size in Latin. There are many different ways that this adjective can be used.

One of the most common uses of this adjective is in the form of an exclamation, as you can see in these examples: O Cupido, quantus es! - "O Cupid, how great you are!" and Quanta stupiditas mea! - "How great is my stupidity!"

In addition, you can find quantus used in correlation with the adjective tantus, as you can see in this example: Quantum potes, tantum aude, "Dare to do as much as you are able."

You will often see quanto... tanto... used to express the degree of difference in a comparison, as in this example: Res quanto est maior, tanto est insidiosior, "The greater a thing is, the more treacherous it is."

In addition to agreeing with its noun and expressing the degree of difference, quantus can also be used in the genitive to express the value of something; you can think of it as "(of) so much (value)." So, for example, here is the genitive used in an exclamation: Quanti est sapere! - "How valuable it is to be wise!"

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Tanti eris aliis, quanti tibi fueris.

Non quantus, sed qualis.

Quantum est quod nescimus!

Nemo scit quantum nescit.

Quantum potes, tantum aude.

Tanti est exercitus, quanti imperator.

Tanto gratius quanto citius.

Tantum scimus, quantum memoria tenemus.

O Cupido, quantus es!

Quantum sufficit.

Quanta est vis eloquentiae!

Nulla valet tantum virtus, patientia quantum.

Quanti est sapere!

De tanta laetitia, quanta tristitia!

Quanto plus bibunt, tanto magis sitiunt.

Quanto plus biberint, tanto plus sitient Parthi.

Crescit amor nummi quantum ipsa pecunia crevit.

Dives marcescit quanto plus copia crescit.

Quanto maior eris, maiora pericla cavenda.

Crescit avara sitis, quanto tibi copia maior.

Monday, December 6, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: CUM

Today's word is CUM. This word is commonly used as a preposition in Latin, meaning "together with," and it takes the ablative case. Importantly, the word is also used as a temporal conjunction, meaning "at the same time (with)" or, more simply, "when."

Historically, the words do come from different origins. The conjunction is related to the relative pronoun qui and was originally spelled quom. Over time, however, the words became viewed as essentially the same, and the spelling cum was standard both for the preposition and for the conjunction. Later, in Latin books printed in the Renaissance and early modern period, you will see a new distinction between these two uses, with the preposition cum being written cum, and the conjunction being written quum; the spelling quum is not classical.

Meanwhile, the spelling of the preposition in older Latin was com, and you can still see that spelling some verbal compounds (like verb componere, which gives us the English word "compound" in fact!). You can also see that when used as a verbal prefix, it undergoes other changes. Before -r it assimilates (corrodo), and also before -l (colligo), and it becomes con- before other consonants (conduco). Before -n you can sometimes see it spelled con- (connecto) and sometimes just co- (conecto). Before vowels and before -h, it is spelled simply as co- (coambulo).

One important thing to remember about the preposition that it means not just "with" but "together with," in the sense of accompaniment. In English, we use the preposition "with" to express the way we do something with the help of an instrument: "The soldier kills them with a sword." In Latin, that sense of instrumental usage is expressed by the ablative case on its own: Miles eos gladio interficit.

Note also the anastrophe with personal pronouns: mecum, tecum, vobiscum, etc.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Omnia mea mecum sunt.

Erat manus Domini cum eis.

Cum dixeris quod vis, audies quod non vis.

Omnia bona mecum sunt.

Aliter cum aliis agendum.

Aliter enim cum alio agendum.

Quid verba audiam, cum facta videam?

Non possum tecum vivere, nec sine te.

Solet sequi laus, cum viam fecit labor.

Cum sol oritur, omnibus oritur.

Cum finis est licitus, etiam media sunt licita.

Tunc scimus, cum causas cognoscimus.

Bene vixit is, qui potuit, cum voluit, mori.

Qui non est mecum, contra me est.

Si Deus pro nobis, quis contra nos?

Quidquid fit cum virtute, fit cum gloria.

Cum Deo quisque gaudet et flet.

Gaudendum cum ceteri gaudent.

Mecum facile redeo in gratiam.

Doctus cum libro.

Saturday, December 4, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: UNUS

Today's word is UNUS, the Latin word for "one." In English, it is sometimes hard to appreciate that numbers really are adjectives. With this Latin word, though, you can see clearly that it is an adjective: unus, unum, una. Watch out for the special genitive form - unius - and dative form - uni (the ablative forms are just what you would expect, uno and una).

There are obviously VERY many English words that derive from this Latin word - starting with the name of the country where I lived: the United States. Notice that in English words the un- that comes from Latin unus is pronounced with a "y" sound: "United," "university," "unanimous," etc. Contrast this with the negative prefix un- in "unfriendly," "unappealing," "unbelievable, etc." Does anybody know just how English got in the habit of pronouncing those unus words with the initial "y" sound? I would be very curious to know that!

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Ex uno multa.

Unius dictum, dictum nullius.

Unus vir non omnia videt.

Vir quidem unus, nullus est.

Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno.

E pluribus unum.

Hoc unum scio: me nihil scire.

Unus amicorum animus.

Vox unius, vox nullius.

Hoc unum certum est: nihil esse certi.

Cuncti gens una sumus.

Anima in amicis una.

Unus Deus, sed plures amici parandi.

Ex uno disce omnes.

Una arbor non facit silvam.

Unus nihil, duo plurimum possunt.

Roma non fuit una die condita.

Roma non uno condebatur die.

Natura uno ad plura utitur.

Omnes una manet nox.

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: THESAURUS

Today's Latin word is THESAURUS, which means a "storehouse, collection," and also a "treasure." Latin thesaurus in fact is where we get the word "treasure" in English, in addition to using the word "thesaurus" in the specific sense of a storehouse of words, such as Roget's Thesaurus.

You may have also heard the English phrase a "treasure trove," which comes from the French tresor trové, which renders the Latin phrase thesaurus inventus.

Here are some Latin sayings and proverbs that use today's word:

Carbonem pro thesauro invenimus.

Ubi thesaurus, ibi oculus.

Ubi thesaurus tuus, ibi et cor.

Sapiens thesaurum in se gerit.

Thesaurus rerum omnium memoria.

Memoria est thesaurus omnium rerum et custos.

Litterae thesaurus est, et artificium numquam moritur.

Ego fidem meam malo quam thesauros.

Ante oculos furum absconde thesaurum.

Qui invenit amicum, invenit thesaurum.

Cui sunt amici, esse sibi thesauros putet.

Non est thesaurus melior quam fidus amicus.

Thesaurus est mulier malorum, si mala est.

Thesauri absconditi nulla est utilitas.

Scientiae non visae, ut thesauri absconditi, nulla est utilitas.

Thesaurus regis est vinculum pacis et bellorum nervus.

Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: REGNUM

Today's word is the noun, REGNUM, from the noun root rex (reg-). The basic meaning of regnum is "kingdom," the thing that is ruled by the king (quod rex regit). By metaphorical extension, it also comes to mean other kinds of authority and dominion, not just that exercised by a king. By a different metaphorical extension, the word regnum can also refer to a place, the place (or people) ruled by a particular king.

Via Old French reigne, the Latin regnum gives us the word "reign" in English. You can also see the Latin word unaltered in the English word "interregnum."

From the noun root in regnum, Latin derives the related verb regnare, "to reign, be king," and also in the more general sense, "to dominate, conquer."

Here are some sayings and proverbs that use today's word, regnum, and also regnare:

Peritura regna omnia.

Regna custodit metus.

Florent concordia regna.

Discordia dilabuntur regna.

Regnum non capit duos.

Idem regnum non fert duos tyrannos.

Nulla fides regni sociis.

Omne regnum divisum desolaretur.

Iniqua numquam regna perpetuo manent.

Columna regni sapientia.

Rex imperator in regno suo.

Potius est felicitas regno.

Quaerite primum regnum Dei.

Effugere cupiditatem regnum est vincere.

Deum cole, regnum serva.

Vae regno cuius rex puer est.

Divide et regna.

Divide ut regnes.

Si vis regnare, divide.

Sola pecunia regnat.

Nummus regnat ubique.

Regnant qualibet urbe lupi.

Ubi Bacchus regnat, Venus saltat.

Aliud regnum alios mores postulat.

Nescit regnare, qui nescit dissimulare.

Legem servare est regnare.

Deo servire regnare est.

Rex regnat, sed non gubernat.

Inter pygmaeos regnat nanus.

Inter caecos regnat luscus.

In caecorum regno regnant strabones.

Monoculus rex in regno caecorum.

Beati monoculi in regno caecorum.

Sunday, November 28, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: NOS

Today's word is the first-person plural personal pronoun, NOS. The nominative and accusative forms are nos, and the dative and ablative forms are nobis. Note also that with the preposition cum the resulting combination is nobiscum, as in the phrase Pax vobiscum.

For the genitive, nostrum is the most common form as you can see in these phrases: nostrum Fortuna, "our Fortune," domus nostrum, "our house." However, when the genitive is being used objectively in relation to a verb or verbal noun, you will find the form nostri; for example, miserere nostri, "have mercy on us."

As you can guess, these genitive forms are actually derived not from the pronoun itself, but from the possessive adjective: noster, nostra, nostrum.

In English, you can see some glimpses of these Latin words, as in the word "paternoster" which comes from the first words of the Lord's Prayer in Latin: Pater noster, qui es in caelis. There is also an English word "nostrum," which is short for the Latin phrase nostrum remedium, and it refers to any kind of quack remedy or home remedy.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Non mihi, non tibi, sed nobis.

Non nobis, sed omnibus.

Nos iubere volumus, non iuberi.

Frater est amicus quem nobis dedit Natura.

Si Deus pro nobis, quis contra nos?

Nemo enim nostrum sibi vivit.

Omnia vincit amor, et nos cedamus amori.

Hora horis cedit; pereunt sic tempora nobis.

Nos duo turba sumus.

Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis.

Omnia mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis.

Adhuc aliquis deus respicit nos.

Uterque nostrum idem simul trahit iugum.

Ultima nos omnes efficit hora pares.

Patria est communis omnium nostrum parens.

Non nobis solum nati sumus.

Non nobis nascimur.

Vita est nobis aliena magistra.

Aliena nobis, nostra plus aliis placent.

Quis nostrum sine vitiis est?

Friday, November 26, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: ITAQUE

Today's word is ITAQUE, a word that may be most familiar to you from the vociferous arguments about its pronunciation on the various Latin online discussion boards.

Here's an overview of the problem:

There is a Latin adverb ita, meaning "thus" or "so," and like any other word in Latin, you can add the particle -que on to the end of the word. The result: ita-que, meaning "and thus" or "and so." Most people pronounce this with the stress on the second syllable, itáque, following the rule for the pronunciation of enclitics (although this is a rule people love to argue about).

There is also itaque regarded as a word of its own where -que is no longer supplying the additive sense of "and" (as also in denique, undique, etc.). The meaning of the word is still essentially the same as ita ("thus," "so," "therefore," etc.), but it is no longer carrying out the function of providing a conjunction between two clauses. Because the -que is not perceived as an enclitic, the stress is on the first syllable: ítaque.

Now, I am not the kind of person to worry about Latin pronunciation ... but for those of you who do worry about it, whenever you see itaque in a text at the beginning of a clause, you have to ask yourself: is this ita-que (itáque), or is it itaque (ítaque)...? Based on the context, is there a need for itaque to be doing the work of a conjunction (itáque), or is it just expressing a sense of logical consequence or conclusion (ítaque)? If the word itaque appears anywhere other than in first position in the sentence or clause, you can safely assume you're dealing with ítaque, but if you're looking at the beginning of a clause or sentence you need to study its connection to the previous clause or sentence and see what connection there might be.

Just practically speaking, though, when in doubt, pronounce the word ítaque, and no one is likely to be offended (although, when it comes to Latin pronunciation, there are some folks out there - mirabile visu - who have a powerful desire to be offended no matter what you might say).

Here are some examples of itaque in some Latin proverbs and sayings:

Vigilate itaque, quia nescitis diem, neque horam.

Optimum est itaque ad primum mali sensum mederi sibi.

Concupiscentia itaque sapientiae deducit ad regnum perpetuum.

Remota itaque iustitia, quid sunt regna nisi magna latrocinia?

Of course, because a word like itaque is more commonly found in the flow of ideas from sentence to sentence, you won't find many examples in the proverbs. So, to make up for that lack, here are ten very short Aesop's fables that show the use of itaque. These fables are taken from my Mille Fabulae et Una book (available in PDF format gratis here), so the numbering follows the numbering in that book:

141. Hyaenae, Masculus et Femina
Hyaenas singulis annis naturam mutare ferunt, et qui modo mas fuit, deinde in feminam converti. Cum olim itaque hyaena masculus contra Naturae leges cum femina coire vellet, “Heus tu,” illa ait, “ne quid tale facias; haec eadem enim mox ipse patieris.”

191. Castor et Venator
Castor est animal in paludibus sese nutriens, cuius testiculi variis medelis utiles esse dicuntur. Itaque cum quispiam eum sequitur, venationis causam non ignorans, fugit ad speluncam ubi, ab hominum conspectu canumque odoratu securus, testes dentibus exscindit et venatoribus appropinquantibus relinquit, et hoc pacto se securum praestat.

249. Asinus Res Sacras Portans
Asinus quidam res sacras portabat, ratus sese venerari homines. Itaque erectus incedebat, tamquam sibi tus illud atque carmina acciperet. Cuius errorem cum mox vidit aliquis, “Mi asine,” inquit, “istam vanitatem tibi excute. Non te, sed istas res sacras caerimoniis colunt; isti divo haec religio debetur.”

439. Corvus et Vulpes Mortem Simulans
Esuriens vulpes, ut aliquam simplicem avem fallere posset, abiecit se in viam, quasi mortua esset, ne vererentur illae advolare ad se. Corvus autem intuitus illam diligentius, spirare vulpem animadvertit. Itaque circumvolitans, “Non meus,” inquit, “oculus minus est subdolus quam cor tuum.”

584. Crocodilus et Homicida
Caedem quidam fecerat, eumque propterea hominis interfecti cognati persequebantur. Ad Nilum itaque cum pervenisset, leonem obvium videns ac timore correptus, in arborem adscendit. Ibi vero cum anguem summis in ramis delitescentem invenisset, novo metu perculsus, se in flumen proiecit, ibique a crocodilo devoratus est.

600. Rana et Leo
Ranam magna vi crocitantem cum leo olim audisset, ad eam vocem protinus sese convertit, magnum aliquod animal esse arbitratus. Paulisper itaque cum substitisset, ubi illam ex palude prodeuntem adspexit, accedens illico proculcavit, haec intra se aiens, “Neminem, re nondum perspecta, vox audita conturbet; nec quispiam, antequam viderit, ab ullo deterreatur.”

611. Ranae Duae et Puteus
Ranae duae in palude quadam degebant. Aestivis autem diebus cum arefacta palus esset, ea relicta, sibi aliam quaesiverunt. Nec longius progressae, profundum puteum invenere. Altera itaque, ut eo una descenderent, proponebat; sed altera “Verum,” inquit, “si hic etiam aqua defecerit, quonam pacto remeare poterimus?”

616. Serpens et Feles
Serpens et feles in quadam domo pugnabant. Inquilini itaque mures, qui ab utrisque continuo devorabantur, ubi decertantes eos videre, cavis illico exiere suis. Ipsi vero simul ac mures videre, iris sepositis proeliisque dimissis, omnes in illos conversi sunt.

655. Cicada et Auceps
Auceps, audita cicada, magnam aliquam praedam capturum se speravit, quam, cum forte praeteriret, aestimabat ex cantu. Sed cum arte adhibita cepisset, nihil quidem praeter cicadae cantum reportavit. Tunc itaque opinionem incusavit, quod mendax multis in rebus ferret iudicium.

766. Iuppiter et Apollo
Iuppiter et Apollo de iaculandi arte contendebant. Phoebus itaque cum arcum intendisset sagittamque emisisset, Iuppiter tantum spatii uno gressu confecit quantum Apollinis emissa sagitta.

773. Iuppiter et Serpens
Cum Iuppiter nuptias celebraret, animalia cuncta, suis quaeque pro viribus, ei munera obtulerunt. Serpens itaque, rosam decerptam ore ferens, ad Iovem accessit, qui simul ac eum vidit, “Ceterorum,” inquit, “omnium dona excipio, sed tuo ab ore nihil prorsus sumo.”

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: INQUAM

Today's word is the defective verb INQUAM, "I say," with these additional commonly found forms: inquit and inquiunt.

You can think about the third-person form inquit as being something like quotation marks in verbal form, since the verb is usually used to signal the presence of quoted direct speech.

Meanwhile, the first-person form inquam is used to add emphasis.

Since these verbs are not commonly found in proverbs, here are ten very short Aesop's fables that show the use of inquit. These fables are taken from my Mille Fabulae et Una book (available in PDF format gratis here), so the numbering follows the numbering in that book:

3. Leo Furens et Caprea
Conspecto leone furente, “O miseram et infelicem conditionem bestiarum,” inquit caprea, “siquidem etiam furiosos habiturae sumus leones, quorum mentis et rationis compotum saevitiam intolerabilem esse experimur.”

37. Vulpes et Uva
Vulpes, extrema fame coacta, uvam appetebat, ex alta vite dependentem. Quam cum summis viribus saliens attingere non posset, tandem discedens, “Nondum matura est,” inquit; “nolo acerbam sumere.”

56. Vulpes et Asinus Pelle Leonis Indutus
Asinus, pelle leonis indutus, per nemora, reliqua bruta perterrens, vagabatur. Vulpe autem conspecta, ipsi quoque timorem iniicere conatus est. Sed haec, ubi casu eius vocem audivit, “Scias velim,” inquit, “quod et ego te sane pertimuissem, nisi rudentem audivissem.”

84. Lupus et Pastorum Convivium
Pastores, caesa ove, convivium celebrabant. Quod cum lupus cerneret, “Ego,” inquit, “si agnum rapuissem, quantus tumultus fieret, at isti impune ovem comedunt!” Tum unus illorum “Nos enim,” inquit, “nostra, non aliena, ove epulamur.”

100. Lupus Monachus
Lupus, in senium deductus, cum non amplius venari posset, sese religioni addixit, sumptoque monachi habitu, cibum ostiatim mendicabat. Reprehensus ab alio lupo, “Quid vis,” inquit, “faciam? Dentes deciderunt, currere non valeo, quare aliter vivere posse diffido.”

133. Ursus et Apes
Ursus, ab ape ictus, tanta ira incensus est ut alvaria unguibus discerperet. Tunc autem apes universae ursum aggressae sunt aculeis et paene necaverunt. Cum vix effugisset, secum “Sane,” inquit, “melius erat unius apis tolerare aculeum quam tot in me hostes excitare iracundia mea.”

201. Mus in Olla
In ollam iusculi plenam quae carebat operculo, mus cecidit et, suffocatus adipe, iamque expirans animam, “Edi,” inquit, “bibique, et cunctis implevi me cibis. Mihi tempus est mori.”

217. Asinus et Lyra
Asinus lyram vidit in prato iacentem; accessit et chordas temptavit ungula. Tactae, sonuere. “Bella res, mehercules, male cessit,” inquit, “quia artis sum nescius. Si hanc reperisset aliquis prudentior, divinis cantibus aures oblectasset.”

230. Asina Aegrota et Lupus
Febri correptam et graviter laborantem asinam, cum morbus saevus esset, invisit lupus et, tangens aestuans corpus illius, ubi doleret potissimum interrogat. “Ibi,” inquit asina, “vel tantum vel maxime dolet, ubi tu me contingis.”

272. Equus et Equiso Eius
Hordeum equi surreptum divendens, equiso eum quotidie et comere et perfricare solebat. At equus “Heus tu,” inquit, “si vere me pulchrum esse cupis, hordeum, quo nutrior, quaeso ne vendas.”

Meanwhile, here's a fable that shows the use of emphatic inquam:

260. Equus Superbus et Asinus
Equus phaleris sellaque ornatus cum ingenti hinnitu per viam currebat. Currenti onustus asellus forte obstabat, cui equus, fremebundus, “Quid,” inquit, “ignave, obsistis equo? Cede, inquam, aut te proculcabo pedibus!” Asellus, rudere non ausus, cedit tacitus. Equo provolanti crepat inguen. Tum, cursui inutilis, ornamentis spoliatur. Postea cum carro venientem asinus affatur, “Heus, mi amice! Quis ille ornatus est? Ubi aurea sella? Ubi splendidum frenum? Sic, amice, necesse fuit evenire superbienti.”

Monday, November 22, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: LEX

Today's word is the noun LEX (genitive singular, lēgis - feminine). Etymologically, the word is possibly related to the verb ligare, "to bind," which makes sense, given that laws are binding! Consider, for example, this saying: Ex aequo lex alligat omnes. For other possible etymologies of the Latin word, see the comments to this post at the Dennis McHenry's Campus blog.

As you can see from the genitive form, the root of the word lex is lēg- with a long ē. Compare for example the verbs legere and lēgare. The verb legere (with a short e) means "to gather, collect," etc. The verb lēgare, on the other hand, has the same root as lex, and it means "to send as an ambassador or deputy" or "to bequeath as a legacy."

The English words derived from this Latin word are innumerable: "legal," "legislature," "legitimate," "legacy," etc. Via French, we even get "loyalty," via Old French loial from Latin legalis. One thing that is tricky, though, is that there are also English words derived from the Latin verb legere, which can lead to some confusion as to just which Latin word you might be dealing with! So, for example, the English word "privilege" is from the Latin lēg- root (a law for just one person), while the English word "sacrilege" is from the leg- root (someone who gathers up and steals sacred things).

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Habet et bellum suas leges.

A Deo rex, a rege lex.

Novus rex, nova lex.

Rex est lex.

Legem non habentes, ipsi sibi sunt lex.

Plus legibus arma valent.

Quid leges sine moribus?

Ibi valet populus, ubi valent leges.

Rex est lex vivens.

Legis manus longa.

Amor legem non habet.

Ex malis moribus fiunt bonae leges.

Aurum lex sequitur.

Lumen Dei, lex diei.

Dura lex, sed lex.

Durum est, sed ita lex scripta est.

Patere legem, quam ipse tuleris.

Cedant arma legibus.

Arma nesciunt leges.

Saturday, November 20, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: SECUNDUS

Today's word is the adjective SECUNDUS, which literally means "following" (from the verb sequi) but which comes to mean "second" in the sense that the second thing follows the first thing. The word can also have the metaphorical sense of being secondary in quality, inferior.

By means of a nautical metaphor, it can also mean "favorable," in the sense that winds (or currents of water) which follow the same course as your ship favor your journey, making it easier. From this metaphor, the word can refer to anything or anyone that is supportive, favorable, etc.

The neuter form, secundum, is used as a preposition taking the accusative, meaning "following, according to." For example, the gospels are sometimes referred to as Secundum Lucam, Secundum Marcam, etc.

The English use of "second" as a measure of time is not something that was known to the Romans. The English "second" dates to the late 14th century in English, from the Old French seconde, from Medieval Latin secunda in the phrase secunda pars minuta, "the second part made small," which is to say, "the second minute" - the prima pars minuta being what we call a "minute" in English today.

Here are some Latin sayings and proverbs and that use today's word:

Dis secundis.

Ventis secundis.

Secundis dubiisque rectus.

In secundis time, in adversis spera.

Fidem secunda poscunt, adversa exigunt.

Amicos res secundae parant, adversa probant.

Invidia est aegritudo ex alterius rebus secundis.

Ex adversis secunda, ex secundis adversa nascuntur.

Nemo confidat nimium secundis.

Nimium rebus ne fide secundis.

Res animos inflant secundae.

Otium fortunas secundas perdit.

I secundo omine.

Secundo flumine natare.

Secundo vento navigare.

Secundum naturam vivere.

Nulli secundus.

Virtute nemini secundus.

Nemo sibi secundus.

Hodie, et cras, et secundum cras.

Medicus garrulus aegrotanti secundus morbus.

Malo hic esse primus quam Romae secundus.

Mores secundum tempus.

Fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum.

Reddam unicuique secundum opus suum.

Unicuique secundum propriam virtutem.

Thursday, November 18, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: DUO

Today's word is a number, DUO. You can see that it is etymologically related to the English word "two," reflecting the shared Indo-European heritage of both Latin and English - not to mention the fact that we also use "duo" as a word in English, too! The reconstructed Indo-European root of the word is *dwṓu, and you can see a list here of the derived forms of this root in the various Indo-European languages.

In Latin, the ending -o reflects the old dual plural. In the most archaic form of Latin, as in Indo-European, there was the singular form and the plural form - but also the dual form, which was used for things that came in pairs. If you have never read about the grammatical dual form, you might enjoy this Wikipedia article. You can see the same dual -o ending in the Latin word ambo, which also refers to something that comes in a pair.

The form duo is used for masculine and neuter nominative nouns, and there is a form duae for feminine nouns. For the genitive, you will see the familiar plural forms duorum and duarum, and for the dative and ablative, duobus and duabus. For the accusative, even the Romans were a bit uncertain whether to use the dual or plural form, so you will sometimes see duo for the masculine accusative, and sometimes duos. (The neuter accusative is the same as the nominative, as is always true for neuters.)

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Mundus non capit duos soles.

Nos duo turba sumus.

Unus nihil, duo plurimum possunt.

E duobus malis, eligendum est minus.

Duobus dominis ne servias.

Nemo potest duobus dominis servire.

Nemo potest dominis digne servire duobus.

Nemo potest dominis pariter servire duobus.

Noli pugnare duobus.

Uni cum duobus non est pugnandum.

Una domus non alit duos canes.

Duobus malis resistere, difficillimum.

Deficit ambobus, qui vult servire duobus.

Duo illa nos maxime movent, similitudo et exemplum.

Nemo potest dominis simul inservire duobus.

Bonum est duabus niti ancoris.

Duos insequens lepores, neutrum capit.

Ne Hercules quidem adversus duos.

Unicum arbustum haud alit duos erithacos.

Plus Federicus uno oculo vidit quam ceteri principes duobus.

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: AMO

Today's word is a verb that everyone loves to love: AMO (amo, amare, amavi, amatum). A few weeks ago, I blogged about the noun form, amor, so you might want to take a look at that entry, too.

Of course, there are lots of English words from this Latin root - "amatory," "amorous," etc. Via French, we get English "paramour" and "amateur," too!

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Ut ameris, amabilis esto.

Si vis amari, ama.

Ut ameris, ama.

Deus ante omnia amandus.

Qui nihil amat, quid ei homini opus vita est?

Vivamus et amemus.

Vivamus atque amemus.

Vere amat qui gratis amat.

Est miser omnis amans.

Quem amat deus, moritur iuvenis.

Nihil amantibus durum est.

Parentes ama.

Ama proximum.

Cum amamus, tum perimus.

Qui amat periculum, in illo peribit.

Pacem amo.

Praestat amari quam timeri.

Litus ama, altum alii teneant.

Coniugem ama.

Amicum proba; probatum, ama.

Sunday, November 14, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: COEPI

Today's word is the verb COEPI. As you can see from the ending, this is a very that exists only in its perfect form: coepi, coepisse, coeptum. The compound form of the verb, incipio, does exist in the present system: incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptum. You can expect to find both of these verbs when reading Latin, as they are both quite common.

The Latin word incipit is used in English to refer to something like the title of a manuscript. Because manuscripts usually did not have titles as such, the opening words are used instead, and this is called an "incipit" in English. Compare also the English word "inception" which is derived from incipio via the participle inceptum.

Coepta tene.

Annuit coeptis.

Christus bene coepta secundet.

Est melius regredi, quam male coepta sequi.

Quaelibet orta cadet, et finem coepta videbunt.

Coepisse multorum est, perficere autem paucorum.

Non bene coepisse, sed bene perfecisse laudis est.

Dimidium facti est coepisse.

Dimidium facti, qui coepit, habet.

Ubi coepit ditem pauper imitari, perit.

Quae desiit amicitia, nec coepit quidem.

Persevera ut coepisti.

Perge quo coepisti.

Perge qua coepisti, ut quam maturrime merita invenias.

Quo bene coepisti, sic pede semper eas.

Non qui coepit, sed qui perfecit, praemium capit.

Nec cito desisto, nec temere incipio.

Qui incipit dubitare, incipit sapere.

Piscis a capite olere incipit.

Prima caritas incipit a seipso.

Aegrotare incipimus mox ubi nascimus.

Incipe pollicitis addere facta tuis.

Antequam incipias, consulta.

A capite incipiendum.

Melius est non incipere quam desinere.

Dii nostra incepta secundent.

Optimi eventus sequuntur egregium inceptum.

Hoc facile est inceptu, difficile confectu.

Omnibus in rebus gravis est inceptio prima.

Friday, November 12, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: IBI

Today's word is the adverb IBI, which means "there, in that place" in terms of space and "then, at that time" in terms of time. To learn more about ibi, read the essay about ubi from a few weeks ago, as the words ibi and ubi are correlative adverbs.

From ibi comes the Latin word ibidem, "in that same place," which gives us the bibliographical abbreviation ibid. in English.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Terrae, ad quam pergis, cape mores, quos ibi cernis.

Ubi thesaurus, ibi oculus.

Ubi thesaurus tuus, ibi et cor tuum.

Ubi dolor, ibi digitus.

Ubi timor, ibi et pudor.

Ubi panis, ibi patria.

Ubi lupus iudex, ibi abeant oves.

Ubi libertas, ibi patria.

Ubi sunt divitiae, ibi est invidia.

Ubi veritas, Deus ibi est.

Ubi meum invenio, ibi vindico.

Ubi plurimae segetes, ibi manifesta fortitudo bovis.

Ubi periculum, ibi lucrum.

Nidus testatur ibi qualis avis dominatur.

Ubi concordia, ibi victoria.

Ibi semper est victoria, ubi concordia est.

Ubi Petrus, ibi et Ecclesia.

Ubi tranquilla tibi omnia videntur, ibi nocitura non desunt sed quiescunt.

Ubi apes, ibi mel.

Ubi mel, ibi apes.

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: IN

Today's word is the preposition in. When it takes the ablative, it means "in" much as in English. When it takes the accusative, it means something more like "into" in English.

You can also find in- commonly used as a prefix to form Latin verbs: induco, infero, etc. Just to make life a bit confusing, however, the prefix in- can also be used to negate nominal forms: incredibilis, for example, means "unbelievable." So beware: when you see in- at the beginning of a Latin word, it could either be something like the preposition "in" or it could be a negating "un-" type of prefix.

Notice that the in- prefix is transformed in some combinations. Before -b and -p it becomes im-, as in imbibo or impeto. Before -l, -m, and -r, it assimilates, as in these verbs: illudo, immitto and irrideo.

There are a few Latin sayings with this word that are sometimes used in English: in situ, in toto, in loco parentis, in vitro, in absentia, in flagrante delicto, and in medias res. Remember also R.I.P, requiescat in pace.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Est modus in rebus.

Pars est in toto, sed totum non est in parte.

Terra es, et in terram ibis.

Nihil in terra sine causa fit.

Solus in pluribus.

Vive in diem.

In tuum ipsius caput.

In aqua scribis.

Omnis in modo est virtus.

In mari aquam quaeris.

In medio stat virtus.

in medias res

Ducis in consilio posita est virtus militum.

Oculi sunt in amore duces.

Sic erat in fatis.

In loco parentis

Nec satis rationis in armis.

In hoc signo vinces.

Anima in amicis una.