Saturday, November 20, 2010
Verbum Hodiernum: SECUNDUS
Today's word is the adjective SECUNDUS, which literally means "following" (from the verb sequi) but which comes to mean "second" in the sense that the second thing follows the first thing. The word can also have the metaphorical sense of being secondary in quality, inferior.
By means of a nautical metaphor, it can also mean "favorable," in the sense that winds (or currents of water) which follow the same course as your ship favor your journey, making it easier. From this metaphor, the word can refer to anything or anyone that is supportive, favorable, etc.
The neuter form, secundum, is used as a preposition taking the accusative, meaning "following, according to." For example, the gospels are sometimes referred to as Secundum Lucam, Secundum Marcam, etc.
The English use of "second" as a measure of time is not something that was known to the Romans. The English "second" dates to the late 14th century in English, from the Old French seconde, from Medieval Latin secunda in the phrase secunda pars minuta, "the second part made small," which is to say, "the second minute" - the prima pars minuta being what we call a "minute" in English today.
Here are some Latin sayings and proverbs and that use today's word:
Secundis dubiisque rectus.
In secundis time, in adversis spera.
Fidem secunda poscunt, adversa exigunt.
Amicos res secundae parant, adversa probant.
Invidia est aegritudo ex alterius rebus secundis.
Ex adversis secunda, ex secundis adversa nascuntur.
Nemo confidat nimium secundis.
Nimium rebus ne fide secundis.
Res animos inflant secundae.
Otium fortunas secundas perdit.
I secundo omine.
Secundo flumine natare.
Secundo vento navigare.
Secundum naturam vivere.
Virtute nemini secundus.
Nemo sibi secundus.
Hodie, et cras, et secundum cras.
Medicus garrulus aegrotanti secundus morbus.
Malo hic esse primus quam Romae secundus.
Mores secundum tempus.
Fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum.
Reddam unicuique secundum opus suum.
Unicuique secundum propriam virtutem.