Friday, December 31, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: ANNUS

In honor of the New Year, I've decided to go out of order and make ANNUS the word for today. We get a lot of English words from this root, such as "annual," "anniversary," "annuity" along with somewhat less obvious words such as "perennial" and "millennium." There are also many Latin compounds using this word; one of my favorites is annosus, "full of years," which is to say "old, elderly."

There is also a Latin word with a similar spelling, anus, meaning a ring or circle, more commonly found in the diminutive form, anulus (the ring you wear on your finger is an anulus in Latin). Some Romans believed that there was a connection between the word anus and annus, since the year is also something like a circle or a ring, a course that goes around and around without end. Here is a passage from Varro to that effect: tempus a bruma ad brumam, dum sol redit, vocatur annus; quod, ut parvi circuli anuli, sic magni dicebantur circites ani, unde annus, "the time from the winter solstice to the winter solstice, when the sun comes back, is called a year, annus, because, like small circles were said to be rings, anuli, so large circuits were said to be years, ani, hence the word annus."

The word Varro invokes here to define the course of the year, bruma, happens to be one of my favorite Latin words, so I will also say something about that here. The word bruma is actually a contraction from the fuller form, brevissima, i.e. brevissima dies, the shortest day of the year, which takes place on the winter solstice. Hence the word bruma also can mean the winter itself. We probably first think of "cold" when we think of winter, because we are used to having artificial lighting available to us all the time - but for the Romans, the shortness of the daylight was also a key feature of winter, hence the use of the term bruma to refer to the wintertime.

So, wishing you all a happy new year, here are some Latin sayings and proverbs with the word annus:

Anno Domini, A.D.

Anno Urbis Conditae, A.U.C.

Annus producit, non ager.

Annus fructificat, non terra.

Annus producit fructum, non arvum.

Annus superior, semper melior.

Semper praestat prior annus.

Non omnibus annis omnia conveniunt.

Candidus et felix proximus annus erit.

Semel in anno licet insanire.

Saepe dat una dies quod non evenit in anno.

Saepe dat una dies quod totus denegat annus.

Accidit in puncto quod non speratur in anno.

Quod donare mora nequit annua, dat brevis hora.

Perditur in puncto quod non reparatur in anno.

Si vestem repares, longum durabit in annum.

Immortalia ne speres, monet annus.

Vita brevis est, licet supra mille annos exeat.

Eunt anni more fluentis aquae.

Anni tacito passu labuntur.

Eheu! fugaces labuntur anni!

Ite, leves menses, alisque fugacibus anni.

Hora fugit, fugiuntque dies, fugit annus et aetas.

Da spatium vitae, multos da, Iupiter, annos!

O mihi praeteritos referat si Iuppiter annos!

Crescunt anni, decrescunt vires.

Cura facit canos, quamvis homo non habet annos.

Si tibi do mannos, numeres ne dentibus annos.

Nihil annis velocius.

A teneris crimen condiscitur annis.

Senecta addit annos, non etiam virtutes.

Senectus non annis computanda, sed factis.

Vulpes annosa non capitur.

Annosae frustra cornici retia tendis.

Annoso prospectandum latrante molosso.

Est annosa canis vix assuefacta catenis.

Annoso leoni vel lepores insultant.

Annosa arbor non transplantatur.

Non annosa uno quercus deciditur ictu.

Parcito saepe cibis et sic annosior ibis.

Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: MOVEO

Today's word is the second-conjugation verb MOVEO (movere, movi, motum). This is a highly productive word root in Latin, and there are obviously many English cognates, too! You can think of lots of obvious words ("move," "motion," etc.) but there are also some less obvious items, too. The English word "moment," for example, is a contracted form of movimentum. Even less obvious: English "mutiny" comes from Middle French meute, via the late Latin noun, movita.

One very interesting feature to note about this today's verb is what it reveals about verbal voice. In English, we are used to the idea that the same verb form could be either transitive or intransitive, depending on context. You can say in English, "the stars move" (i.e., the stars move about the sky, no object) but you can also say "they move the furniture" (where the furniture is the direct object of the verb).

Latin is more precise in the use of the verb movere than English is. When the verb takes an object, you find the active voice, just as you would expect: movet castra, for example, "he moves the camp." When the verb is intransitive, however, you will see the passive form used instead in Latin: aqua movetur, "the water moves, is moving." So, if you do feel a need to translate from Latin into English, be careful with those passive forms; sometimes the passive form might be equivalent to an English intransitive verb, rather than to an English passive. You can only decide based on context what the best English equivalent for the Latin verb might be.

Here are some Latin sayings and phrases that use today's word:

Salivam hoc movet.

Asperitas odium movet.

Bos sibi ipsi pulverem movet.

Non movenda moves.

Bene qui stat, non moveatur.

Malum bene situm ne moveto.

Lapidem omnem movebo.

Casus hominum movent corda.

Praecepta docent, exempla movent.

Verba docent, exempla movent.

Verba monent, exempla movent.

Verba movent, exempla trahunt.

Lacrimis adamanta movebis.

Asinus aurem movens.

Quietum non move lutum.

Cum Minerva et manum move.

Ut moveas alios, tu moveare prius.

Capiunt vitium, ni moveantur aquae.

Sol stat, sed terra movetur.

Caelum stat, terra autem movetur.

Motus sine causa nullus est.

Animi motum vultus detegit.

Motus in fine velocior.

Assiduo labuntur tempora motu.

Mota semel multitudo modum non servat.

Res satis est nota: plus dolent vulnera mota.

Plus foetent stercora mota.

Monday, December 27, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: CIVITAS

Today's word is CIVITAS, an abstract noun from the root civ-, as in civis. So just as civis refers to a "citizen," the abstract noun civitas refers to "citizenship" or the "general state of being a citizen." By metaphorical extension, it comes to mean the "community of citizens," in the sense of a "nation" or "state." By metonymy this can also extend to the sense of a "city," although note that while the words civitas and urbs can both be translated as "city" in English, they have quite different origins in Latin.

It is the word civitas which gives rise to the word for city in the various Roman languages, such as Italian città and Spanish ciudad. It is the old French form of the word, cite, which gives us the modern English "city."

Here are some Latin proverbs and sayings that use today's word:

Unus vir non facit civitatem.

In magna civitate multa et varia ingenia sunt.

Magna civitas, magna solitudo.

Civitates quo maiores, eo deteriores.

Labore virtute civitas floret.

Civium industria floret civitas.

Custodi civitatem, Domine.

Salus civitatis in legibus est.

Ut corpora nostra sine mente, sic civitas sine lege.

Talis est civitas, quales sunt principum mores.

Qualis rector est civitatis, tales inhabitantes.

Quales sunt summi civitatis viri, talis est civitas.

Disciplina praesidium civitatis.

Unius peccata tota civitas luit.

Duarum civitatum civis esse nemo potest.

Civitas in seditione non potest esse beata.

Omnis civitas vel domus divisa contra se, non stabit.

Beata civitas, quae in pace bellum timet.

Haec tota in civitate fabula est.

In libera civitate oportet etiam linguas esse liberas.

In libera civitate lingua mensque esse liberae deberent.

Lingua, quo vadis? erectura civitatem et rursum eversura?

Terribilis est in civitate sua homo linguosus.

Vae civitati in qua iuvenes magistratum gerunt!

Agros et civitates sapientia et navem gubernat.

Non potest civitas abscondi supra montem posita.

Frater qui adiuvatur a fratre quasi civitas firma.

Melius in oppidulo esse primum quam in civitate secundum.

Tria sunt enim quae habemus: libertatem, familiam, civitatem.

Omnibus duas esse censeo patrias, unam naturae, alteram civitatis.

Non enim habemus hic manentem civitatem, sed futuram inquirimus.

Saturday, December 25, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: VERITAS

Today's word is the noun VERITAS, meaning "truth," an abstract noun from the adjectival verus (vera, verum), "true." There is an English word derived from the Latin: "verity," a rarely used synonym for "truth." It is actually more common to see the French form of that word in the expression "cinéma vérité."

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Sit pax et veritas in diebus meis.

Nihil dulcius veritatis luce.

Via, veritas, vita.

Temporis filia veritas.

Vivat veritas.

Optima est veritas.

Quid est veritas?

Veritas omnia vincit.

Veritas et virtus vincunt.

Veritas vincet.

Dux mihi veritas.

Super omnia vincit veritas.

Ubi veritas, Deus ibi est.

Nil veretur veritas.

Nihil possumus contra veritatem.

Nox furibus, lux veritati convenit.

Veritas est super omnia amanda et sequenda.

Antiquior omnibus veritas.

Veritatis una vis, una facies est.

Ex ore parvulorum veritas.

Thursday, December 23, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: AQUA

Today's word is the wonderful noun AQUA, water, which gives us so many English derivatives, like "aquariums" and "aquaducts" and "aquifers" and so on.

There are also some less obvious words, such as "ewer" which comes from Old French eviere, via the Latin aquarius, the adjectival form of aqua - and, of course, we know "Aquarius" in English as a sign of the zodiac. In a related derivation, English "sewer" comes from Old French sewiere, which is aquarius with the prefix ex-.

In Latin, there are some important phrases and idioms that use today's word, such as aqua et ignis, "water and fire," which serves as a shorthand for the necessities of life. Since the Romans used water-clocks, water could indirectly refer to time; aquam dare meant to give someone the time they needed to speak, while aquam perdere referred to wasting time.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

In aqua scribis.

In mari aquam quaeris.

Transivimus per ignem et aquam.

Nec pleno flumine cernit aquas.

Omnes aquae in mare revertentur.

Eunt anni more fluentis aquae.

Vivis piscibus aqua, mortuis vinum.

Tempora labuntur more fluentis aquae.

A cane muto et aqua silente caveto.

Vitium capiunt, ni moveantur aquae.

Aquam e pumice postulas.

Ranae aquam ministras.

Cribro aquam hauris.

Haurit aquam cribro qui discere vult sine libro.

Aquae furtivae dulciores sunt.

Ardea culpat aquas, quia nescit nare per illas.

Contra hominem fortem et potentem aquam currentem, noli contendere.

Aquae non currenti et homini tacenti credere noli.

Amicus magis necessarius quam ignis et aqua.

In pugna miles, nauta peribit aqua.

Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: PARO

Today's word is the Latin verb PARO, which is a typical first conjugation verb: parō, parāre, parāvī, parātum. The basic meaning of the Latin word is "get ready, set in order," as you can see in the English derivative "prepare" (from the Latin compound praeparō).

The real challenge with this Latin word is distinguishing it from other verbs that have "par" in their root. There is a second-conjugation verb pāreō (pārēre, pāruī, pāritum) which means both "to appear, to be at hand" and also "to obey" (in the sense that a servant appears and is ready to do his master's bidding!). This is the Latin word which gives us the English verb "appear." Then, just to make things even more confusing, there is a third-conjugation verb pariō (parere, peperī, partum), which means "give birth" (as in the English use of the Latin phrase "post-partum," meaning "after birth").

Now, because these verbs are from different conjugations, the number of ambiguous forms is quite small - although the present subjunctive paret (from parō, parāre) can only be distinguished from the present indicative pāret (from pāreō, pārāre) by the macron. In context, of course, the meanings of these verbs are so dramatically different from one another that if you keep the context in mind, you will probably not get confused at all!

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Estote parati.

Fortunam suam quisque parat.

Fortunam suam sibi quisque ipse parat.

In omnia paratus.

Mors omnibus parata est.

Sibi parat malum, qui alteri parat.

Unus Deus, sed plures amici parandi.

Paratur pax bello.

Si vis pacem, para bellum.

Iuveni parandum, seni utendum.

Novos amicos dum paras, veteres cole.

Vina parant animos.

Horam dum petis, ultimam para.

Parvum servabis, donec maiora parabis.

Homines plerique ipsi sibi mala parant.

Bonum para nomen, et dormi secure.

Pax, pax! clamatur; sed pax per bella paratur.

Novos parans amicos, ne obliviscere veterum.

Paratae lacrimae insidias, non luctum indicant.

Antequam viceris ne triumphum pares.

Sunday, December 19, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: SIGNUM

The word for today is SIGNUM, the Latin word which gives us "sign" in English. The Latin etymology of the word is important to recognize: signum most probably comes from the verb sequor (this is not 100% guaranteed, but Calvert Watkins for one endorses this etymology). How do you get from sequor to signum? Just think of the "signs" carried as standards by the legions - you follow where the sign leads you. I'll let the semiotically-minded readers ponder that metaphor more deeply; it can lead in some profound directions!

Another English word that ultimately derives from Latin signum is the word "seal" - not the animal, but instead the seal or stamp that serves as a marker or identifier. Start with Latin signum, form the Latin diminutive sigillum, which becomes seel in Old French and finally English "seal."

The English word "tocsin" is also derived from Latin signum. The Old French toquassen came from Provencal "tocar senh" (tocar, "to touch" and senh, from signum, here meaning a bell or signal), which then yielded English "tocsin."

Here are some Latin sayings and proverbs that use today's word:

Per signum crucis.

Hoc est signum Dei.

In hoc signo spes mea.

In hoc signo vinces.

Hoc signo victor eris.

Quid vesper serus vehat, sol tibi signa dabit.

A signis caeli nolite metuere quae timent gentes.

Signa autem temporum non potestis scire.

Animo qui aegrotat, corpore hunc signum dare.

Morbum signa precurrunt.

Certis rebus certa signa praecurrunt.

Oblivio signum neglegentiae.

Oblivio beneficiorum signum ingratitudinis.

Magnae indolis signum est sperare semper.

Senex in domo, bonum signum in domo.

Signum scientis est posse docere.

Silentium est signum sapientiae, et loquacitas est signum stultitiae.

Friday, December 17, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: NATURA

Today's Latin word is the noun NATURA, which is very familiar, of course, from the English borrowing, "nature."

You might pause for a moment and see what other words in Latin nouns are formed in this same way, using the -ura suffix applied to a participial stem. Natura is from natus (from the verb nascor) just as creatura is from creatus (from the verb creo), statura is from status (from the verb sto), cultura is from cultus (from the verb colo), structura from structus (from the verb struo) pictura from pictus (from the verb pingo), scriptura from scriptus (from the verb scribo) etc. These all result in parallel English words, too: "nature," "creature," "stature," "culture," "structure," "picture," "scripture," etc.

Here are some sayings and proverbs that use today's word:

Natura morborum medicatrix.

Medicus curat, natura sanat.

Dux vivendi natura.

Naturae vis maxima.

Natura rerum omnium mater.

Omnes natura parit liberos.

Natura diverso gaudet.

Natura simplicibus gaudet.

Natura paucis contenta.

Omne vitium contra naturam pugnat.

Omne nimium est naturae inimicum.

Ars aemula naturae.

Ars imitatur naturam.

Natura abhorret a vacuo.

Ars est simia naturae.

Ars est ministra naturae.

Ars perficit naturam.

Ars vincit naturam.

Natura longe superat artem.

Natura docet homines omnes artes.

Usus fortior natura.

Consuetudo altera natura.

Natura non facit saltus.

Natura nihil temere facit.

Natura nihil agit frustra.

Deus et natura nil otiosum facit.

Naturam mutare difficile.

Natura mutari non potest.

Naturam fallere grave est.

Natura non nisi parendo vincitur.

Natura plus trahit septem bobus.

Natura maxime miranda in minimis.

Quod natura negat, labor praebet.

Frater est amicus quem donat natura.

Friday, December 10, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: CREDO

Today's Latin word is CREDO. If you look at the parts of this verb - credo (credere), credidi, creditum - you get a very good clue about the Latin etymology of the word. Does that reduplicated -didi in the perfect from seem familiar? It should remind you of the Latin verb "to give," do (dare), dedi, deditum. The word credo is actually a compound of Latin cor ("heart, mind") and dare, meaning to "give heart" to something - in other words, "to trust" or "to believe."

We even use the first-person form of the verb "credo," as an English word. There are also many English words that are derived from this Latin stem, such as "credit," "creed," "credible," "incredible," and so on. Less easy to recognize is the word "miscreant," which comes via the Old French mescreant, meaning to "badly believe," in the sense of being a heretic or an infidel. Later, the meaning came to refer to any kind of scoundrel or villain, not necessarily in a religious context.

As you would expect in a word that is a compound of dare, the verb credere takes a dative complement: verbis tuis credo, "I believe my words" or "I put my trust in your words." The verb can also introduce indirect speech with the accusative and infinitive: Credo Deum esse.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Quod video, id credo mihi.

Quod non legitur, non creditur.

Vide et crede.

Ne omnibus credas.

Non omni verbo credas.

Non omnibus crede.

Id quod volunt, credunt quoque.

Non opus est verbis; credite rebus.

Non est credendum omni verbo.

Tibi ut vincas est credendum.

Male creditis hosti.

Agere sequitur credere.

Ne aliis de se quisquam plus quam sibi credat.

Virtuti melius quam fortunae creditur.

Ore lego, corde credo.

Beati qui non viderunt, et crediderunt.

Contra spem in spem credidit.

Quod volumus, facile credimus.

Omnia quae dicunt homines tu credere noli.

Plus aliis de te, quam tu tibi, credere noli.

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: QUANTUS

Today's word is the adjective QUANTUS which is how you express quantity and size in Latin. There are many different ways that this adjective can be used.

One of the most common uses of this adjective is in the form of an exclamation, as you can see in these examples: O Cupido, quantus es! - "O Cupid, how great you are!" and Quanta stupiditas mea! - "How great is my stupidity!"

In addition, you can find quantus used in correlation with the adjective tantus, as you can see in this example: Quantum potes, tantum aude, "Dare to do as much as you are able."

You will often see quanto... tanto... used to express the degree of difference in a comparison, as in this example: Res quanto est maior, tanto est insidiosior, "The greater a thing is, the more treacherous it is."

In addition to agreeing with its noun and expressing the degree of difference, quantus can also be used in the genitive to express the value of something; you can think of it as "(of) so much (value)." So, for example, here is the genitive used in an exclamation: Quanti est sapere! - "How valuable it is to be wise!"

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Tanti eris aliis, quanti tibi fueris.

Non quantus, sed qualis.

Quantum est quod nescimus!

Nemo scit quantum nescit.

Quantum potes, tantum aude.

Tanti est exercitus, quanti imperator.

Tanto gratius quanto citius.

Tantum scimus, quantum memoria tenemus.

O Cupido, quantus es!

Quantum sufficit.

Quanta est vis eloquentiae!

Nulla valet tantum virtus, patientia quantum.

Quanti est sapere!

De tanta laetitia, quanta tristitia!

Quanto plus bibunt, tanto magis sitiunt.

Quanto plus biberint, tanto plus sitient Parthi.

Crescit amor nummi quantum ipsa pecunia crevit.

Dives marcescit quanto plus copia crescit.

Quanto maior eris, maiora pericla cavenda.

Crescit avara sitis, quanto tibi copia maior.

Monday, December 6, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: CUM

Today's word is CUM. This word is commonly used as a preposition in Latin, meaning "together with," and it takes the ablative case. Importantly, the word is also used as a temporal conjunction, meaning "at the same time (with)" or, more simply, "when."

Historically, the words do come from different origins. The conjunction is related to the relative pronoun qui and was originally spelled quom. Over time, however, the words became viewed as essentially the same, and the spelling cum was standard both for the preposition and for the conjunction. Later, in Latin books printed in the Renaissance and early modern period, you will see a new distinction between these two uses, with the preposition cum being written cum, and the conjunction being written quum; the spelling quum is not classical.

Meanwhile, the spelling of the preposition in older Latin was com, and you can still see that spelling some verbal compounds (like verb componere, which gives us the English word "compound" in fact!). You can also see that when used as a verbal prefix, it undergoes other changes. Before -r it assimilates (corrodo), and also before -l (colligo), and it becomes con- before other consonants (conduco). Before -n you can sometimes see it spelled con- (connecto) and sometimes just co- (conecto). Before vowels and before -h, it is spelled simply as co- (coambulo).

One important thing to remember about the preposition that it means not just "with" but "together with," in the sense of accompaniment. In English, we use the preposition "with" to express the way we do something with the help of an instrument: "The soldier kills them with a sword." In Latin, that sense of instrumental usage is expressed by the ablative case on its own: Miles eos gladio interficit.

Note also the anastrophe with personal pronouns: mecum, tecum, vobiscum, etc.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Omnia mea mecum sunt.

Erat manus Domini cum eis.

Cum dixeris quod vis, audies quod non vis.

Omnia bona mecum sunt.

Aliter cum aliis agendum.

Aliter enim cum alio agendum.

Quid verba audiam, cum facta videam?

Non possum tecum vivere, nec sine te.

Solet sequi laus, cum viam fecit labor.

Cum sol oritur, omnibus oritur.

Cum finis est licitus, etiam media sunt licita.

Tunc scimus, cum causas cognoscimus.

Bene vixit is, qui potuit, cum voluit, mori.

Qui non est mecum, contra me est.

Si Deus pro nobis, quis contra nos?

Quidquid fit cum virtute, fit cum gloria.

Cum Deo quisque gaudet et flet.

Gaudendum cum ceteri gaudent.

Mecum facile redeo in gratiam.

Doctus cum libro.

Saturday, December 4, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: UNUS

Today's word is UNUS, the Latin word for "one." In English, it is sometimes hard to appreciate that numbers really are adjectives. With this Latin word, though, you can see clearly that it is an adjective: unus, unum, una. Watch out for the special genitive form - unius - and dative form - uni (the ablative forms are just what you would expect, uno and una).

There are obviously VERY many English words that derive from this Latin word - starting with the name of the country where I lived: the United States. Notice that in English words the un- that comes from Latin unus is pronounced with a "y" sound: "United," "university," "unanimous," etc. Contrast this with the negative prefix un- in "unfriendly," "unappealing," "unbelievable, etc." Does anybody know just how English got in the habit of pronouncing those unus words with the initial "y" sound? I would be very curious to know that!

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Ex uno multa.

Unius dictum, dictum nullius.

Unus vir non omnia videt.

Vir quidem unus, nullus est.

Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno.

E pluribus unum.

Hoc unum scio: me nihil scire.

Unus amicorum animus.

Vox unius, vox nullius.

Hoc unum certum est: nihil esse certi.

Cuncti gens una sumus.

Anima in amicis una.

Unus Deus, sed plures amici parandi.

Ex uno disce omnes.

Una arbor non facit silvam.

Unus nihil, duo plurimum possunt.

Roma non fuit una die condita.

Roma non uno condebatur die.

Natura uno ad plura utitur.

Omnes una manet nox.

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: THESAURUS

Today's Latin word is THESAURUS, which means a "storehouse, collection," and also a "treasure." Latin thesaurus in fact is where we get the word "treasure" in English, in addition to using the word "thesaurus" in the specific sense of a storehouse of words, such as Roget's Thesaurus.

You may have also heard the English phrase a "treasure trove," which comes from the French tresor trové, which renders the Latin phrase thesaurus inventus.

Here are some Latin sayings and proverbs that use today's word:

Carbonem pro thesauro invenimus.

Ubi thesaurus, ibi oculus.

Ubi thesaurus tuus, ibi et cor.

Sapiens thesaurum in se gerit.

Thesaurus rerum omnium memoria.

Memoria est thesaurus omnium rerum et custos.

Litterae thesaurus est, et artificium numquam moritur.

Ego fidem meam malo quam thesauros.

Ante oculos furum absconde thesaurum.

Qui invenit amicum, invenit thesaurum.

Cui sunt amici, esse sibi thesauros putet.

Non est thesaurus melior quam fidus amicus.

Thesaurus est mulier malorum, si mala est.

Thesauri absconditi nulla est utilitas.

Scientiae non visae, ut thesauri absconditi, nulla est utilitas.

Thesaurus regis est vinculum pacis et bellorum nervus.