Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: IN

Today's word is the preposition in. When it takes the ablative, it means "in" much as in English. When it takes the accusative, it means something more like "into" in English.

You can also find in- commonly used as a prefix to form Latin verbs: induco, infero, etc. Just to make life a bit confusing, however, the prefix in- can also be used to negate nominal forms: incredibilis, for example, means "unbelievable." So beware: when you see in- at the beginning of a Latin word, it could either be something like the preposition "in" or it could be a negating "un-" type of prefix.

Notice that the in- prefix is transformed in some combinations. Before -b and -p it becomes im-, as in imbibo or impeto. Before -l, -m, and -r, it assimilates, as in these verbs: illudo, immitto and irrideo.

There are a few Latin sayings with this word that are sometimes used in English: in situ, in toto, in loco parentis, in vitro, in absentia, in flagrante delicto, and in medias res. Remember also R.I.P, requiescat in pace.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Est modus in rebus.

Pars est in toto, sed totum non est in parte.

Terra es, et in terram ibis.

Nihil in terra sine causa fit.

Solus in pluribus.

Vive in diem.

In tuum ipsius caput.

In aqua scribis.

Omnis in modo est virtus.

In mari aquam quaeris.

In medio stat virtus.

in medias res

Ducis in consilio posita est virtus militum.

Oculi sunt in amore duces.

Sic erat in fatis.

In loco parentis

Nec satis rationis in armis.

In hoc signo vinces.

Anima in amicis una.

No comments: