Sunday, October 31, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: SINE

Today's word is the Latin preposition SINE, meaning "without." This preposition takes the ablative and it is one of those Latin prepositions which is not used independently as an adverb; sine is only used as a preposition.

You can see this preposition in the English word "sinecure," meaning "without duties or obligations," from the Latin phrase sine cura. You may have heard that the word "sincere" is from the Latin sine cera, but this is a folk etymology without any foundation in linguistic history. Instead, the Latin word sincerus is probably related to the sim- root that you can see in the word simplex.

The preposition sine has an archaic form se (sed), which you can still see in various Latin compound words: segrego (when something is separated from its flock; hence the English word "segregated") or secerno (which, in its participle form, gives us the English word "secret"). The form sed- appears before a vowel as in seditio (when someone goes away or departs, hence the English word "sedition").

Here are some sayings and proverbs which use today's word:

Sine qua non.

Nihil fit sine causa.

Motus sine causa nullus est.

Non sine numine.

Non sine diis.

Nihil sine Deo.

Non sine labore.

Nil sine magno labore.

Non sine pulvere palma.

Nulla rosa sine spinis.

Alauda non est sine crista.

Nulla dies sine linea.

Ars sine scientia nihil.

Nihil sine pecunia.

Quis sine peccato est?

Nemo sine defectu.

Nemo sine vitio est.

Nemo sine vitiis nascitur.

Canis sine dentibus latrat.

Sine hoste vincor.

Mel nulli sine felle datur.

Non est triticum sine paleis.

Amicitia est Amor sine alis.

Amor regit sine lege.

Sine iustitia nulla libertas.

Nulla poena sine lege.

Quid leges sine moribus?

Leges sine moribus vanae.

Litterae sine moribus vanae.

Non sine lumine. (inscription on a sun dial!)

Sine sole sileo. (another sun dial inscription)

Saturday, October 30, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: LIGO

Today's word is the first conjugation verb, LIGO (ligare, ligavi, ligatus). We get a lot of English words from this root, such as "ligament," ligature," "ligation" (as in the phrase "tubal ligation"), "obligated," and "league."

Even the word "liable" meaning "bound by law" comes from ligare via French lier. We also get English "allegiance" and "alloy" from the Latin via French. Even English "rely" is from re-ligare, again via the French.

Here are some Latin sayings and phrases that use today's word:

Cornu bos capitur, verbo ligatur homo.

Non ligabis os bovis terentis in area fruges tuas.

Funiculis ligatum vel puer verberaret.

Prodest et linguam compescere sive ligare.

Lingua ligata tibi multos acquirit amicos.

Ligari enim homo potest et invitus; velle autem non potest invitus.

Ex aequo lex alligat omnes.

Lex omnes mortales alligat.

Lex dubia non obligat.

Ubi ius, ibi obligatio.

Promissio boni viri fit obligatio.

Ultra vires nemo obligatur.

Ad impossibile nemo obligatur.

Astra inclinant, non obligant.

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: QUICUMQUE

Today's word is QUICUMQUE, one of those compound indefinite pronouns, where the first part declines (qui-, cuius-, quo-, etc.) while the second part stays the same. The -cumque part expresses the idea of "-soever" or "-ever" or "every" - so quicumque means "whosoever, whoever, everyone" quibuscumque means "to whomsoever, to whomever, to everyone" etc. The idea is that it doesn't matter who or which one - any one of them will do just as well as any other!

The word quicumque is more commonly used as an adjective with a noun rather than substantively, e.g. quocumque modo, "any way at all (it doesn't matter which way exactly)" quacumque ratione, "for any reason at all (it doesn't matter which reason exactly)" etc.

You can also find the neuter quodcumque, "whatever" used with a genitive complement, e.g. quodcumque lucri, "all (of) the profit."

What makes this word tricky is that there are other Latin words that have the same sort of meaning in English. In addition to quicumque, there is also quilibet, quivis, and quisquis. The best way to learn the usage of these terms is through reading lots of Latin; we just don't have the same range of pronouns in English that Latin does.

You can also see this same -cumque suffix in other Latin words, such as ubicumque, "wheresoever, wherever (it doesn't matter where, anywhere at all)."

Here are some Latin sayings and proverbs that use today's word:

Deus est quodcumque vides.

Consequor quodcumque peto.

Quodcumque celes, ipse tibi fias timor.

Donum quodcumque probato.

Donum quodcumque dat aliquis, lauda.

Prona est iuventus in quodcumque malum.

Beati quicumque pugnantes pro patria.

Quicumque gladio utitur, gladio peribit.

Farinam fugit quicumque molam vitat.

Haud servus est quicumque mortem despicit.

Hausit opes quicumque suas, alienas vorabit.

Pudor quemcumque non flectit, frangat timor.

Veritas, a quocumque dicitur, a Deo est.

Si possis, recte; si non, quocumque modo.

Si possis, suaviter; si non, quocumque modo.

Florebo quocumque ferar.

Sequentur te quocumque perveneris vitia.

Iter est, quacumque dat prior vestigium.

Ieiunus venter recipit quaecumque libenter.

Aurea ne credas quaecumque nitescere cernis.

Quaecumque ferat, fortuna ferenda est.

Quamcumque viam dederit Fortuna sequamur.

Monday, October 25, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: PATRIA

Today's word is PATRIA (gen. patriae), meaning "fatherland" or "homeland, native country." This is actually the feminine form of an adjective, patrius, which you can see in other uses as well. For example, Cicero can refer to the patrius sermo (what we would call your "mother tongue") and a nomen patrium is a patronymic, a name based on your father's name (as when Aeneas is called Anchisides, from the name of his father Anchises). Far and away the most common usage of this word, however, is as the feminine noun patria.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Ibi patria, ubi bene.

Dulce pro patria vivere.

Ubi bonum, mihi patria.

Non sibi, sed patriae.

Pro rege saepe, pro patria semper.

Ducit amor patriae.

Patria est ubi bene est.

Patria est ubi bene sit cuique.

Vincet amor patriae.

Patria mea totus hic mundus est.

Dulce pro patria mori.

Dulce pro patria periculum.

Sua cuique cara patria.

Patria cara, carior fides.

Roma communis nostra patria est.

Patria est communis omnium nostrum parens.

Homo non sibi soli natus, sed patriae.

Illic enim patria est, ubi tibi sit bene.

Sapientis est carere patria.

Patria sua cuique iucundissima.

Saturday, October 23, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: ACCIPIO

Today's word is ACCIPIO, a third conjugation verb: accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus. It is a compound of ad- plus the verb capio. As you would expect the "d' in the ad-c combination assimilates to ac-c with vowel reduction: ad-capio = accipio.

The meaning is what you would expect: "to take to oneself, take possession of, accept, receive." It can also have the metaphorical meaning of "grasping, comprehending, understanding" (something like "getting it" in English).

Of course, from this Latin word we get "accept" in English via the Latin frequentative form of the verb: acceptare.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Da et accipe.

Da, si vis accipere.

Dare Deo accipere est.

Quod datur, accipe.

Petite, et accepietis.

Accipe quod tuum alterique da suum.

Gratis accepistis; gratis date.

Quae gratis accepimus, gratis demus.

Gratis dare debemus, quae gratis accepimus.

Simul da, simul accipe.

Dare melius est quam accipere.

Beatius est dare quam accipere.

Qui nihil audet, nihil accipit.

Qui nimium petit, nihil accipit.

Divinum dare, humanum accipere.

Omnes qui acceperint gladium, gladio peribunt.

Necessitas dat legem, non ipsa accipit.

Argentum accepi, imperium perdidi.

Melius est iniuriam accipere quam facere.

Accipere praestat quam inferre iniuriam.

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: VOX

Today's word is VOX. As with many third-declension nouns, the nominative reflects the noun stem voc- with an added s at the end: voc+s = vox. You can see the same root in the Latin verb voco.

We have an abundance of English words that derive from this Latin root, including the word "voice" itself (from old French voiz, in turn derived from the Latin vocem). Other English words include "vocal," "vociferous," "invoke," "revoke," etc. The English word "vowel" also comes from this root, as a littera vocalis, a letter that can be voiced (unlike consonants, which cannot be pronouned on their own without a vowel sound).

The Latin word vox covers a range of meaning from any kind of call or cry or sound in general, while also referring to some kind of specific utterance, so that it can even mean a "saying" or "word" (for example, a word in a dictionary is a vox, and the meaning of the word is listed sub voce).

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Vox unius, vox nullius.

Vox populi, vox Dei.

Melior est vox operis, quam vox oris.

Multum viva vox facit.

Vox audita perit, sed littera scripta manebit.

Et lacrimae pondera vocis habent.

Nescit vox missa reverti.

Flectitur iratus voce rogante deus.

Vox sanguinis clamat de terra.

Validior vox operis quam oris.

Vox operis validior est, quam oris.

Vox et praeterea nihil.

Vox est potentior ense.

Ostia cur claudis, si vocem pauperis audis?

Dissimilis cunctis vox, vultus, vita, voluntas.

Si vox est canta; si mollia brachia, salta.

Ne si bos quidem vocem edat.

Ego vox clamantis in deserto.

Vox clamantis in deserto.

Corvus voce crocitat sua.

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: AMOR

Today's word is that favorite third-declension noun, AMOR. From this Latin root, we get many English words: amatory, amateur, amorous, paramour, enamor.

As in English, the word amor can refer to the feeling of love, and also to the object of that feeling. If you want to express the object of the feeling, you can do that with the genitive: amor nummi, "love of money."

On the subject of love, take a few minutes and browse through this amazing website: Dutch Love Emblems of the Seventeenth Century. You can see 20 different love emblem books reproduced online, with wonderful images and Latin texts.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Amor omnibus idem.

Amor vincit omnia.

Mentis sol amor dei.

Ubi amor, ibi oculus.

Oculi sunt in amore duces.

Amor legem non habet.

Vincet amor patriae.

Ducit amor patriae.

Amori finem tempus, non animus facit.

Veri amoris nullus est finis.

Amor mundum fecit.

Cedamus amori.

Omnia vincit amor, et nos cedamus amori.

Ubi amor, ibi dolor.

Primus amor potior.

Nescit amor habere modum.

Amor ordinem nescit.

Noscitur adverso tempore verus amor.

Signum pacis amor.

Amor magister est optimus.

Sunday, October 17, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: ARRIPIO

Today's word is ARRIPIO, a third conjugation verb: arripio, arripere, arripui, arreptus. It is a compound of ad- plus the verb rapio. As you would expect the "d' in the ad-r combination assimilates to ar-r with vowel reduction: ad-rapio -> arripio.

The word has the same basic meaning as rapere, "to snatch or seize," with the additional idea of grabbing something towards yourself, for yourself, taking possession of something, etc.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below:

Arripe horam; ultimam timeas.

Arripe quae offeruntur.

Arripienda quae offeruntur.

Oblata arripe.

Occasionem arripe.

Occasiones non modo accipe, arripe.

Statim arripienda oblata occasio lucri.

Arripe ansam.

Ambabus manibus arripe.

Arrepta candela, candelabrum quaeris.

Ecce consilium: arripe et age.

Oblatam occasionem arripe.

Friday, October 15, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: VERBUM

Today's word is VERBUM, which is related via Indo-European to the English word "word." In Latin, verbum has a wide range of meanings.

In the singular, verbum can mean word, but also a saying or expression, or even a sentence. It can also mean a proverb, as here in Plautus: verum est verbum, quod memoratur: ubi amici, ibidem opus. As in English, Latin verbum has the grammatical meaning of "verb," as in this explanation by Varro: Aristoteles orationis duas partes esse dicit, vocabula et verba, ut "homo" et "equus" et "legit" et "currit."

In the plural, verba can mean not just words, but also conversation, discourse, or language in general. The phrase verba dare means "to trick somebody, to deceive them."

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Acta, non verba.

Quid verba audiam, cum facta videam?

Rebus, non verbis.

Non verbis, sed rebus.

Factis, non verbis.

Non verbis, at factis opus est.

Quid opus est verbis?

Non omni verbo credas.

Non opus est verbis; credite rebus.

Non est credendum omni verbo.

Rem tene; verba sequentur!

Plures sunt res quam verba.

Virtute, non verbis.

Res plus valent quam verba.

Qualia verba viri, talis et ipse vir est.

Verba das in ventos.

Ostende rebus, non verbis.

Verbum laudatur, si factum tale sequatur.

Verba factis probentur.

Verba rebus proba.

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: ETIAM

Today's word is ETIAM, one of those tricky little words in Latin, so commonly used and so hard to pin down because it does not have a simple one-to-one correspondence with any English word.

As you can see, etiam is related to the conjunction et, "and." Some of the English words that you might consider using to translate etiam, depending on context, are words that are quite similar in meaning to English "and," such as "also; and also; likewise, besides," etc. There are many different Latin usages of this word, and the article in Lewis & Short is well worth reading. I've just noted a few of the most important uses below.

There is also a good deal of semantic overlap between the Latin quoque and etiam. As a general rule, etiam is even stronger in force than quoque. The word etiam usually precedes the word being emphasized, while quoque follows it.

A common use of etiam is in a paired set of expressions: non solum (non tantum)... sed etiam..., as for example in these phrase: non verbis solum sed etiam vi and non tantum verbis, sed etiam actu.

Another common use of etiam is together with si, sometimes written as one word, etiamsi, "and even if..."

Often you can understand the use of etiam as implying another statement which is not expressed; the same is true for the adverbial use of et. For example, consider the statement: unum etiam vos oro, "I beg you for one more thing (one thing in addition, one thing besides, etc."). The best way to understand this adverbial use of etiam is in terms of an implied statement - you've already begged for something or other, and now (etiam) you are begging for something more. If you explore a sentence where et or etiam is being used adverbially, you can always figure out what the implied statement is to which the explicit statement is conjoined with et or etiam.

You can see the strongly affirmative sense of etiam in that it can be used to mean something equivalent to English "yes" in answer to a direct question. So, for example, the sense of "yes or no" in this Latin phrase: aut etiam aut non respondere.

For an odd little example of this use of etiam to mean "yes," consider the legend of the name of the Monza Cathedral, originally named Modoetia, because - as the folk etymology tells us - the Lombard queen Theodelinda had been riding along, seeking a site to build a church, when a dove halted her by saying Modo ("now") and she replied Etiam ("yes"), hence Modoetia, which became modern Italian Monza. Okay, it's just a folk etymology - but it's a fun one! :-)

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Etiam si omnes, ego non.

Cui licitus est finis, etiam licent media.

Etiam seni est discendum.

Fides, etiam hosti, servanda est.

Qui bona vina bibunt, etiam bona carmina scribunt.

Caret periclo, qui, etiam cum est tutus, cavet.

Etiam prudentissimus peccat.

Dulce etiam fugias, quod amarum fieri potest.

Benignus etiam causam dandi cogitat.

Pulchrorum etiam autumnus pulcher est.

Lupus oves etiam numeratas devorat.

Istud incredibile est, etiam si dicat Cato.

Etiam post malam segetem serendum est.

Cum Minerva manus etiam move.

Spina etiam grata est, ex qua exspectatur rosa.

Saepe etiam stultus fuit opportuna locutus.

Etiam sine lege poena est conscientia.

Omne simile est etiam dissimile.

Animae esurienti etiam amara dulcia videntur.

Simia simia est, etiam si aurea gestet insignia.

Monday, October 11, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: ILLE

Today's word is the pronoun / pronominal adjective, ille-illud-illa. Watch out for the tricky forms, like the genitive illius and dative illi for all three genders. In archaic Latin texts you will find the form written olle rather than ille.

One good way to understand the Latin pronouns is in terms of the three persons: (1) hic is connected to the first person; it is the thing near me, (2) iste is connected to the second person, it is the thing near you, while (3) ille is the thing over there, connected to some third person.

Just as you would expect, you can also find the usual adverbs from this pronoun: illac, "that way," illuc, "to that place, thither," etc.

This pronoun has not given us any English words, but you might be interested in the fascinating role it has played in the history of the Romance languages, and French in particular. To explain the long story briefly (you can read more at Wikipedia), the languages of France can be divided into two groups: the langues d'oc in southern France and the langues d'oïl in the north. These labels are based on the distinctive words used for "yes" in these two language groups: oc in the south, and oïl in the north (which eventually gave rise to modern French oui). Both of these words for "yes" derive from Latin expressions: a simple hoc (i.e. hoc fecit) was the origin of oc, while hoc ille (i.e. hoc ille fecit) gave rise to oïl.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Qui non habet, ille non dat.

Meum mihi placet, illi suum.

Qui amat periculum, in illo peribit.

Tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis.

Omnia mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis.

Per quae sis tutus, illa semper cogites.

Sapiens ille plenus est gaudio.

Si regnum in se dividatur, non potest stare regnum illud.

Nulla scientia melior est illa, qua cognoscit homo se ipsum.

Ego illum periisse dico cui quidem periit pudor.

Cuius regio, illius et religio.

Favet huic, adversa est illi Fortuna.

Illum nullus amat, qui semper: Da mihi! clamat.

Ille hodie, ego cras.

Nunc hunc, nunc illum consumit gladius.

Ille mi par esse deo videtur; ille, si fas est, superare divos.

Bis ille miser est, ante qui felix fuit.

Ille nihil dubitat qui nullam scientiam habet.

Qui se exponit periculo, peribit in illo.

Cornu ferit ille, caveto!

Saturday, October 9, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: TENEO

Today's verb is TENEO (teneo, tenere, tenui, tentus). The trick with this verb is to understand how it is similar to but also different from the verb habeo, since both of these verbs are usually translated with the word "have" in English.

The root of teneo has to do with "reaching," as you can see in the verbs tendo and extendo. So, you can think about this verb as meaning something like "holding, keeping." The phrase manu tenere means to "grasp" or "seize" something. It can also have the idea of strength and firmness, as in the sense of "holding fast, occupying, defending." Similarly, it can also mean "hold back" or "hinder," as you can see in the dervied verb detineo, "detain." The reflexive phrase se tenere means "to keep back, remain, stay." For more idioms and uses of the verb, there are lots of great details and examples in the Lewis & Short Dictionary online.

There are lots of English words derived from this Latin root. There is the series of verbs "detain, maintain, retain, sustain," etc. There is the noun "tenet" and also "tenure" and "tenant" as well as "tenement." Someone who is "tenacious" (Latin tenax) is someone who fiercely keeps hold of something.

There is also a Latin preposition worth learning: tenus, meaning "reaching something, up to, according to." It takes an ablative complement but, unlike other prepositions, regularly appears AFTER the noun, instead of before (so it's a rather odd pre-position): poplite tenus, "up to the knee, as far as the knee," collo tenus, caelo tenus, etc. You might recognize this preposition from the adverbs formed from it: eatenus, hactenus, etc.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Quod tuum, tene!

Sua tenenda cuique.

Tene fortiter!

Rem tene; verba sequentur!

Coepta tene.

Tenere non potes, potes non perdere diem.

Litus ama, altum alii teneant.

Omnia probate; quod bonum est, tenete.

Inter utrumque tene; medio tutissimus ibis.

Quae recta, tene.

Tantum scimus, quantum memoria tenemus.

Malo quod teneo quam quod spero.

Nemo tenetur prodere seipsum.

Auribus lupum teneo.

Tenendum certum, dimittendum incertum.

Certum est tenendum, incertum dimittendum.

Multa rogare, rogata tenere, retenta docere: haec tria discipulum faciunt superare magistrum.

Bestia cornibus tenetur, homo verbis suis.

Difficile est tenere quae acceperis, nisi exerceas.

Frena tene et siste impetum.

Thursday, October 7, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: NISI

Today's word is NISI, which is a contraction of ne and si, "if not." Unfortunately, people often try to use the archaic English equivalent, "lest," in order to translate Latin nisi. As a general rule, it is far easier to simply translate nisi as "if not" or with the more contemporary English word "unless." You can also find the same idea expressed as si...non with no real difference in meaning.

In addition, you can find nisi used to mean something like "except," or "only," as in this famous saying: Nemo nisi mors, "No one except death" (i.e. "No one except death will part us.")

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Nisi causas scimus, nihil scimus.

Nihil nisi mors certum est.

Bonus vir nemo est, nisi qui bonus est omnibus.

Nemo nisi mors.

Nemo nisi suo die moritur.

Nemo autem regere potest, nisi qui et regi.

De vivis nil nisi verum.

Nil magnum nisi bonum.

Nil scio nisi nescio.

Nemo malus nisi probetur.

De absentibus nihil nisi bonum.

De absentibus nisi bene.

Perdes maiora, minora nisi servaveris.

De mortuis nil nisi bonum.

Cum tuus es, noli servire, nisi tibi soli.

Nil, nisi quod prodest, carum est.

Nemo nisi sapiens liber est.

Nemo sapiens nisi patiens.

Nemo ab alio contemnitur, nisi a se ante contemptus.

Nihil pulchrum, nisi utile.

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: HOSTIS

Today's word is HOSTIS meaning a "foreigner, stranger," and more specifically an "enemy." The Latin word hostis refers to a public enemy, an enemy of one's people or country; the word inimicus denotes a more personal enemy (literally, the "un-friend").

This Latin word has some obvious English derivatives, such as "hostile," "hostility," etc. It is also the origin of the word "host," in the sense of an army or war-like expedition (e.g., the Biblical epithet "Lord of Hosts").

What is far more interesting is the connection to the English word, "guest," in the sense of a stranger. The English word probably derives from the Germanic root *gastiz, which is in turn derived from PIE *ghostis, the same root which gives rise to Latin hostis.

Here are some Latin sayings and phrases that use today's word:

Hostes non dormiunt.

Hostis honori invidia.

Tot hostes quot servi.

Hostis numquam spernendus.

Adversus hostes necessaria est ira.

Fides, etiam hosti, servanda est.

Hostium dona non sunt dona.

Mendax ab hoste non differt.

Amicus fronte, hostis pectore.

Frigus et fames durissimi hostes.

Pirata est hostis humani generis.

Ex amico inimicus, hostis ex socio.

Beneficus importunus hoste non minus.

Ab hoste maligno libera nos, Domine.

Pereunt auxilium qui dant suis hostibus.

Iram qui vincit, hostem superat maximum.

Sunday, October 3, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: NUNC

Today's word is the adverb NUNC. The "c" you see here is the same as the emphatic "c" at the end of the words hic, haec, hoc. So, the basic adverb meaning "now" is num, but add the "c" and you get nunc.

The opposite of nunc is tunc (or tum), which means "then, at that time."

You can also use the word nunc in a pair to mean "now (at this time)... now (at some other time)" - as in this example: Nunc huc, nunc illuc curro, "Now I run this way, not I run that way."

Here are some phrases and sayings that use today's word:

Nunc aut numquam.

Nunc nox, mox lux.

Olim non erat ut nunc.

Sub qua nunc recubas arbore, virga fuit.

Vetera quae nunc sunt fuerunt olim nova.

Iudex bonus est pice nunc rarior alba.

Qui fuit rana nunc est rex.

Bene navigavi nunc, cum naufragium feci.

Nunc pluit, nunc claro.

Stultus nunc ridet, nunc flet.

Nunc mihi, nunc tibi, benigna fortuna.

Folia nunc cadunt; tum arbores in te cadent.

Ver redit; nunc est canendum.

Aquam a pumice nunc postulas.

Friday, October 1, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: RELINQUO

Today's word is the third-conjugation verb RELINQUO. TThe -n- infix in the present system of the Latin verb disappears in the perfect system: relīqui and relictum.

The basic meaning is to "leave behind" or "abandon." " In can also mean to "bequeath," in the sense of dying and leaving something to someone. The word can also mean to "let something stay behind," or to leave in the sense of "allow." In this sense the verb can take a predicate accusative: eum locum reliquit integrum, "he left that place untouched."

This Latin verb is at the root of our English word "relinquish" and "derelict." From the related noun, reliquiae, "leavings, remnants," we get the English word "relic."

Here are some proverbs and sayings using today's word:

Nucibus relictis.

Assueta relinquere durum est.

Vigilandum est; nisi properamus relinquemur.

Ne derelinquas nos, Domine!

Ne derelinquas amicum antiquum.

Miseros prudentia prima relinquit.

Mors optima rapit, deteriora relinquit.

Non debent pro vanis certa relinqui.

Incerta pro spe non munera certa relinque.

Necessitas nihil intentatum relinquit.

Domum cum facis, ne relinquas impolitam.

Omnia tibi fortuna abstulit, sed spem reliquit.

Quod edi, bibi, mecum habeo; quod reliqui, perdidi.

Qui canem alit exterum, huic praeter lorum nil fit reliquum.