Friday, January 28, 2011

Verbum Hodiernum: QUI

Today's word is XXX, which is a Today's word is the sneaky little relative pronoun, QUI-QUAE-QUOD, (genitive cuius), which is much used in Latin, and sometimes so confusing to English speakers..

Latin meaning and usage: I'm not going to try to provide an overview of the use of the relative pronoun, but here is a link to the section on the syntax of the relative pronoun in Allen & Greenough's Latin Grammar. Pay special attention to section 308 - it includes a lot of good information, especially on the differences between the way the relative pronoun is used in Latin as compared to its use in English.

Latin word formation: The relative pronoun qui-quae-quod is also used as an interrogative adjective (Quae puella? Which girl?), and the forms of the relative pronoun and interrogative pronoun quis-quid overlap perfectly, except for the nominative singular forms. You can also see the qui-quae-quod pronoun used in many other Latin compouns, such as quidam, quicumque, etc.

English cognates and derivatives: There is a famous Latin phrase using this relative pronoun that we still use in English: QED, which stands for: Quod erat demonstrandum.

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which also contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below:

Esto quod esse videris.

Qui non habet, ille non dat.

Deus dat cui vult.

Quod vis videri, esto.

Cum dixeris quod vis, audies quod non vis.

Quod bonum est, bonos facit.

Qui sibi malus, nulli bonus.

Agamus quod agendum.

Nihil dat qui non habet.

Sibi quisque habeat quod suum est.

Quod tuum, tene!

Sumus quod semper facimus.

Non semper ea sunt quae videntur.

Qui petit a te, da ei.

Quod verum est, meum est.

Id quod volunt, credunt quoque.

Vincit qui se vincit.

Frater est amicus quem nobis dedit Natura.

Quod sequitur fugio; quod fugit, ipse sequor.

Gratis dare debemus, quae gratis accepimus.

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