Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Verbum Hodiernum: SIMUL

The word for today is the adverb SIMUL. This is immediately familiar to English speakers from the word "simultaneous." What is important about the Latin word is the many different ways in which it can be used in a sentence.

You can find it used as a temporal adverb for plurals nouns that are in action at the same time: multa concurrunt simul, as Terence says, or simul cenare voluerunt, in Cicero.

You can also find it used for a plural object of a verb, as when Plautus says of Alcmena: uno partu duos peperit simul.

You can find simul combined with the preposition cum to mean "together with," as, for example, when Terence says, simul consilium cum re amisti?

In addition, simul can be used with conjunctions such et, ac, atque, etc., as in this example from as in this phrase from Cicero: simul cupidus incepta patrandi et timore socii anxius (simul X et Y). Simul can also be used to refer to two entire coordinate clauses or sentences, as in this example from Sallust: equites ex equis desiliunt simulque et hosti se opponent.

Note also that the combination simul atque can be used as a subordinating conjunction by itself (and sometimes written as a single word, simulac). Here is an example from Cicero: simul atque increpuit suspicio tumultus, artes ilico nostrae conticescunt.

Likewise, simul can be used to coordinate two dependent clauses, as here in Quintilian: a sermone Graeco puerum incipere malo, quia Latinum vel nobis nolentibus perhibet, simul quia disciplinis quoque Graecis prius instruendus est.

Finally, simul can be used by itself to introduce an independent sentence, as in this example from Plautus: Sequimini! Simul circumspicite ne quis adsit arbiter.

Here are some Latin proverbs and sayings which feature this word:

Non possunt omnia simul.

Multa iuvant collecta simul.

Contraria simul esse non possunt.

Impossibile simul esse et non esse.

Hic esse et illic simul non possum.

Difficile est sorbere et simul flare.

Simul da, simul accipe.

Simul dictum, simul factum.

Non arabis in bove simul et asino.

Uterque nostrum idem simul trahit iugum.

Aves discolores raro simul volitant.

Concolores aves plerumque simul volitant.

Non habitant simul pudor et fames.

Fortuna simul cum moribus immutatur.

Nemo potest esse simul actor et iudex.

Accusare et iudicare simul fas non est.

Nemo potest dominis simul inservire duobus.

Amare simul et sapere vix deo conceditur.

Inventum simul et perfectum nihil est.

Melius est duos esse simul, quam unum.

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