Friday, August 12, 2011

Verbum Hodiernum: CAPIO

Today's word is CAPIO, which is a third-conjugation verb: capio, capere, cepi, captus.

Latin meaning and usage: The basic meaning of the word is "take," and like the English word, the Latin word is used in dozens of different idioms; the Lewis & Short dictionary entry is well worth looking at.

Latin word formation: There are a large number of compound forms of this verb, such as accipio, concipio, decipio, excipio, incipio, percipio, praecipio, recipio, and suscipio, to name just a few. The verb capio also gives rises to various nouns and adjectives such as capax and capacitas, and also capistrum, while the supine stem gives many words, such as captivus and captatio. An auceps is a bird-catcher (avis-ceps), while the word forceps means something you can use to take up (-ceps) something hot (for-).

English cognates and derivatives: Given the large number of compound forms of capio, there are also many English derivatives. From the uncompounded capio we get words like "captive" and "capture." The word "caption" originally referred to legal indictments involving seizure; later, it became generalized to mean the beginning of a document or a heading, and now it is often used to mean a description shown below an illustration. The word "cable" comes from this root (via the late Latin word capulum), and a "case" is from Latin capsa. From this Latin root, we also get English "catch" via French chasser, which also gives us the word "chase."

Here are some examples of today's word in Latin sayings and proverbs; for more information, see the page at the Scala Sapientiae, which also contains notes on some of the proverbs cited below, as well as additional proverbs:

Qui potest capere, capiat.

Qui capit, capitur.

Summum cape et medium habebis.

Muneribus vel di capiuntur.

Mundus non capit duos soles.

Parva leves capiunt animos.

Qui maiora cupit, saepe minora capit.

Terrae, ad quam pergis, cape mores, quos ibi cernis.

Capies qualia dona dabis.

Capit omnia tellus, quae genuit.

Voluptate capimur omnes.

Qui amat divitias, fructus non capiet ex eis.

Non qui coepit, sed qui perfecit, praemium capit.

In magno magni capiuntur flumine pisces.

Est captu facilis turbata piscis in unda.

Turbato melius capiuntur flumine pisces.

Cornu bos capitur, verbo ligatur homo.

Capta avis est melior quam mille in gramine ruris.

Occasio capienda est.

Vitium capiunt, ni moveantur aquae.

No comments: